SPECIALIZED KNIFE, SURFACE.

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READING FLAKED STONE ARTIFACTS

When you read an archaeological report, the flaked stone artifacts are usually described and interpreted using a typology or an attribute analysis. Before doing such an analysis, each artifact must be "read." The surface of an artifact is composed of many scars caused by striking flakes. As an artifact is flaked, each flake that is detached partially removes and obscures scars from previously removed flakes. This creates a pattern that makes it possible to "read" the order in which flakes were removed to create the edges and final shape of the artefact. Thus, you can tell both how the artifact was shaped and which edges were engaged when the artefact was being used in particular tasks. When you know this, it is then possible to group artifacts into types or select attributes that reflect the their making or use.
   This gallery is given over to several examples of how artifacts are read and thereby interpreted. Unless otherwise noted, these artifacts all come from the beaches and banks of the Columbia River between Saddle Mountains and Lodge Pole Rapids, at the north end of Quilomene Bar. They are mainly from the west side of the river. Many are from the beaches adjacent to The Hermit Site (45Kt6) and The Sunset Creek Site (45Kt28).We will begin with the knife shown in the page header, above.
   Be aware. These explanations are designed for those who want to learn how to read artifacts and are, therefore, technical in character.

Scale bars are always 1 cm.


Click on specimen to enlarge and for further information. Scale bars each 1 cm.

Provenance. The gallery above presents 34 specimens from 45KT28 that are in the collection of Fred Van Ronk. Most have been donated or purchased from the estates of other collectors and were in frames or boxes marked as coming from the Sunset Creek Site. As memory and records can be fallible, a few of these specimens may not come from 45KT28, but there is only one that appears out of place (4th row, 2nd from the left). This specimen is typical of points from the middle Snake River, though it could easily have been traded or carried north.

Usefulness. This assemblage, collected mainly on the beach at 45KT28, illustrates well the utility of such material. Though we do not know for certain which cultural components they come from, they are still useful because they extend the morphological range of points from the site, which is especially helpful when material from 45KT28 is being compared to material from other sites, both locally and across the Plateau.

Note on the images. Scanning was done with an Epson V500 Photo Scanner. This is a CCD scanner with a reasonable depth of field and color depth. The original scans were done at 600 dpi at 1:1. Five images are provided of each specimen: one thumbnail 150 px high, back and front intermediate images each 170 px wide, and back and front images at the original scanner size (1:1 at 600 dpi). These last are displayed by clicking on the intermediate-sized images. Each image comes with a 1 cm. scale bar that is about one-fiftieth of a mm. short.


  45KT28/FVR 1. Projectile point, probably Type 7 or Type 8. Agatized wood. Thickness: 7.1 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/FVR 2. Projectile point, Type 5, Miscellaneous Specimen. Silica, possibly petrified bog. Thickness: 5.6 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/FVR 3. Projectile point, Type Variant 6C. Cayuse Phase. Silica (possibly petrified bog). Thickness: 3.6 mm. Stem indented, corner of base broken. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/FVR 4. Projectile point, Type 7 or Type 8. Probably Cayuse Phase. Coarsely serrated. Silica: speckled chert. Thickness: 7.5 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/FVR 5. Projectile point, Type 5, Miscellaneous specimen (Quilomene Bar Corner Notched). Probably Cayuse Phase. Silica: carnelian with bands of yellow dendrites (petrified wood?). Thickness: 5.6 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/FVR 6. Projectile point, Type Variant 5B (Quilomene Bar Corner Notched). Probably Cayuse Phase. Obsidian. Thickness: 4.9 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 7. Projectile point, Type Variant 5B (Quilomene Bar Corner Notched). Probably Cayuse Phase. Silica: petrified wood. Thickness: 5.7 mm. Base broken. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 8. Projectile point, Type Variant 5A (Quilomene Bar Base Notched). Probably Cayuse Phase. Silica: jasp-agate (probably petrified wood). Thickness: 5.95 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 9. Projectile point, Type Variant 9A. Probably Cayuse III Phase. Silica: Jasp-agaate. Seriated. Exceptionally well flaked. Thickness: 2.9 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 10. Projectile point, Stemmed, type uncertain. Phase uncertain. Silica: petrified wood. Thickness: 7.1 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 11. Projectile point, Type Variant 5A (Quilomene Bar Base Notched. Quilomene Bar or Cayuse Phase. Grey quartzite or andecite? Thickness: 6.3 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 12. Projectile point, Type 3 (Rabbit Island Stemmed). Silica (possibly petrified bog). Thickness: 5.2 mm. Reverse retouch on stem. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 13. Projectile point, Type 3 (Rabbit Island Stemmed). Silica. Thickness: 6.1 mm. Finely seriated. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 14. Projectile point, Type 3 (Rabbit Island Stemmed). Silica (possibly petrified bog). Thickness: 4.1 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 15. Projectile point, Type 5, Miscellaneous specimen (Quilomene Bar Corner Notched). Quilomene Bar or Cayuse Phase. Silica: white agate. Thickness: 5.8 mm. Probably oxidized in a fire and then resharpened on one edge. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 16. Projectile point, Type Variant 9A. Probably Cayuse III Phase. Silica: carnelian. Thickness: 5.7 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 17. Projectile point, Type 3 (Rabbit Island Stemmed)? Silica: petrified wood. Thickness: 4.3 mm. Base broken. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 18. Projectile point, Type Variant 6C. Cayuse Phase. Silica: petrified wood. Thickness: 4.6 mm. Base notched, corner of base broken. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 20. Projectile point, Type Variant 5A (Quilomene Bar Base Notched). Quilomene Bar or Cayuse Phase. Silica (possibly bog or wood cast). Thickness: 4.3 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/FVR 21. Projectile point, Type 7. Silica (possibly petrified wood). Thickness: 5.0 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 22. Projectile point, Possibly Type 8. Silica: jasp-agate (possibly wood cast). Thickness: 6.2 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 23. Projectile point, Type Variant 9A. Cayuse III Phase. Silica (possibly wood or bog cast). Thickness: 4.6 mm. Short barb broken. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 24. Leaf-shaped projectile point, Form 1?. Silica: speckled grey chalcedony. Thickness: 3.2 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 25. Projectile point, Type Variant 9E. Cayuse III Phase. Silica: brown carnelian. Thickness: 3.2 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 26. Projectile point, Type Variant 8D. Cayuse III Phase. Silica: agate. Thickness: 6.8 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 27. Projectile point, Type Variant 6C. Cayuse Phase. Silica: yellow and grey agate (possibly wood or bog cast). Thickness: 4.2 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/FVR 28. Projectile point, Type Variant 9A. Cayuse III Phase. Silica: yellow plume agate. Thickness: 2.4 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 29. Projectile point, Type Variant 9F. Cayuse III Phase. Silica: jasp-agate (possibly wood or bog cast filling). Thickness: 2.2 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 30. Projectile point, Type Variant 9B. Cayuse III Phase. Silica: grey-green agate (possibly wood or bog cast filling). Thickness: 2.6 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 31. Projectile point, Type 7 or 8. Probably Cayuse Phase. Silica: carnelian (probably petrified wood). Thickness: 6.6 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 32. Projectile point, cf. Type 6D. Cayuse Phase. Silica: agate. Thickness: 4.2 mm. Note the supplementary notch opposite the barb. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 33. Projectile point, Possibly Type 3. Silica: white moss agate. Thickness: 5.6 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 34. Projectile point, Type Variant 8E. Cayuse III Phase. Silica (probably petrified wood). Slightly water worn. Thickness: 3.6 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 35. Projectile point, Type Variant 9A. Cayuse III Phase. Carnelian. 35.4 x 10.3 x 4.0 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 36. Projectile point, Type 7. Possibly Cayuse I Phase. Weakly banded blue-white agate. 52.7 x 22.9 x 6.0 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 37. Pentagonal knife, Type 2. Cayuse III Phase. Carnelian with bands of blue moss agate. 40.4 x 26.9 x 6.6 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 38. Projectile point, unclassified form. No phase designation. Agate containing small phenocrysts. 44.8 x 20.5 x 10.4 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 39. Projectile point, unclassified form. Possibly Cayuse III Phase. White milk agate. 41.1 x 17.2 x 7.4 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 40. Projectile point, Type Variant 9B. Cayuse Phase. Agatized wood. 34.9* x 17.6* x 3.7 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 41. Projectile point, Type Variant 9C. Cayuse III Phase. Butterscotch moss agate. 32.7 x 11.4 x 3.3 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 42. Pentagonal knife, Type II. Cayuse III Phase. Weakly bandad milk agate. 42.2 x 33.1 x 5.8 mm. Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge
  45KT28/FVR 43. Projectile point, Type Variant 9C. Probably Cayuse III Phase. Speckled grey chalcedony. 50.2 x 18.9 x 5.4 mm.
Scale bar 1 cm.

Courtesy of Fred Van Ronk.

Click on images to enlarge


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LAST REVISED: 8 MAY 2017