45KT28/4266 (o-266) - Ddigging stick handle from Cultural Component VII, Subcomponent undesignated from the fill just above the floor of House Pit 1 (VIIG). Ergo, Cayuse II or Cayuse III Subphase
 

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[203] BONE AND ANTLER ARTIFACTS

   A total of 465 bone and antler artifacts were recovered. Of these, 451 derive from Cultural Component VII, nine are from Cultural Component VI, and four are from Cultural Component V. Bone and antler were not preserved in Cultural Components I and II, and though they did occur in both Cultural Components III and IV, no bone or antler artifacts were recovered.

   The small sample from Cultural Component III through VI is, in part, a reflection of the size of the total sample from these components. It is probably related also to over-all site-utilization patterns and the kinds of artifacts which come to be roost frequently associated with these patterns.

   The sample from Cultural Component VII, on the other hand, is large enough to make some general statements regarding gross utilization patterns of both bone and antler. The picture here is one of stability, bone and antler being traditionally used for certain purposes throughout the component and thus throughout the Cayuse Phase, Awls and gaming dice are made exclusively of bone, while wedges, composite harpoon valves, and digging stick handles are always of antler. Other kinds of artifacts, such as needles, flaking implements, fleshers, projectile points, and barbs, are made, in varying proportions, of both materials.

   Changes are restricted to minor shifts in specific form. Thus the decoration of gambling bones changes and artifacts of antler are more commonly decorated during the Cayuse I Subphase.

 

   Distribution of antler artifacts.
VII: A, 31; B, 7; C, 13; D, 10; F, 4; G, 8; H, 20; I, 41; L, 1; undesignated, 31
 VI: 4
  V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0 [203/204]

   
 

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Conventions
Abstract
Table of Contents
Letters
Figures & Tables
Acknowledgements
Introduction
Definitions
Setting
Cultural Record
 Introduction
 Vantage Phase
 Cold Springs
 Frenchman Spring
 
Quilomene Bar
 Cayuse Phase
  Characteristics
  Age
  Ethnography
  Salishan
  Stratigraphy
  Cayuse I
  Cayuse II
  Cayuse III
  Discussion
Summation
Models for
  Prehistory

Typology
Stone Artifacts
  Flaked Stone
  Percussion
  Ground Stone
Bone/Antler
Shell Artifacts
Metal Artifacts
Raw Materials
Methodology
Rockshelters
References Cited

 

   Distribution of bone artifacts.
VII: A, 36; B, 29; C, 7; D, 9; E, 2; F, 6; G, 5; H. 43; I, 62; L. 4; undesignated, 81
 VI: 5
  V: 3
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 1 (beach)

   
  


Bone Awls

Bone Awls. A total of 101 awls were recovered, all from Cultural Component VII. Splinter, split metapodial, and L-shaped scapula awls are the three major types represented. Each is found consistently throughout the component and thus the Cayuse Phase.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 13; B, 11; C, 1; D, 2; E, 1; F, 2; H, 21; I, 27; undesignated, 23
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

   
  


Type 1 L-Shaped Scapula Awls (Figs. 76 and 77)

   Number of Specimens. 33

   Material. Deer scapulae.

   Measurements and description. These specimens, which commonly vary from 8.5 to 17 cm. in length, possess long, parallel-sided shafts; sharp, tapered points; and small, L-shaped handles. The following measurements are based on six complete specimens.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
8.7-16.2
none
Width
2.5-3.5
2.8
Thickness
0.8-1.1
0.95
 

   Technique of manufacture. From complete specimens and cut scapula detritus, it is inferred that L-awls were manufactured from the auxilary borders of deer and possibly antelope scapulae by a fourfold process. The first two steps of the process are interchangeable, and consist of breaking away the scapula's articulation and cutting the axillary border from the remaining palm. In the cutting process, in which a stone knife or graver probably was used, a portion of the palm carefully was left attached to the distal terminus of the auxilary border. This later formed the L-shaped handle of the awl. Cutting might be carried out so that the complete, pointed outline of the awl was formed, or it might be done in such a way that a long, parallel-sided shaft was formed. If such a shaft were sought first, the scapula's articulation might be left attached. In either case, the outer edge of the auxilary border was trimmed through cutting. If the articulation was left in place, it was broken away from the end of the shaft Then the shaft was split longitudinally, a long trough-shaped splinter of bone being removed. This left the final trimming and polishing to be done.

   Comments. Encompassed in this type are nine complete or nearly complete specimens, five pieces of cut scapula (see Fig. 77), and 19 tip and shaft fragments. The latter can be identified easily, as the auxilary border of the scapula is filled with spongy but sturdy bone. Since no other bone is of exactly the same structure, and since the auxilary border was used in no other way, virtually all L-awl fragments can be identified. [204/205]


Figure 76A (left): Drawings of Fig. 76e (left, 45KT6/801, VII-I) and 76c (right, 45KT28/1741, VIIA) by Delmar Nordquist.

Figure 76B (right): Drawings of 76g (45Kt28/1488 VIIU), front and back, and of 76B-1 showing decoration on the shaft of a scapula awl. Drawings by Delmar Nordquist. Of 33 scapula awls recovered form the site excavation, three (nearly 10%) are decorated.

This figure was not included in the original publication for budgetary reasons.

DRAWINGS OF TWO L-AWLS FROM VII-I AND VIIA THAT ARE PHOTOGRAPHED IN FIGURE 76   DRAWINGS OF TWO DECORATED L-AWL FRAGMENTS FROM CCVII BY DELMAR NORDQUIST.


 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 8; B, 4; D, 1; F, 1; H, 4; I, 4; undesignated, 11
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: 147, Class 3; Pl. XVIII, b
   Osborne 1959: 193; Pl. VII, m
   Osborne, Crabtree, and Bryan 1952: 365, Pl. 110; 366
   Osborne and Shiner 1950: Pl. VIIIa, 31
   Shiner 1952: Pl. IV, a
   Smith 1910: 71; Fig. 57

45KT28. L-Awl fourd in slough from the river bank near HP13. Cultural Component VII.

   Supplementary Figure 76C. In the final year before the completion of the dam, a collector came in with a pump and water screen in the neighborhood of House Pit 13 (Fig. 4). One of the items recovered from Cultural Component VII was this decorated L-awl.

45KT28. L-Awl fourd in slough from the river bank near HP13. Cultural Component VII.

45KT28. L-Awl fourd in slough from the river bank near HP13. Cultural Component VII.
  

Two observations are worth noting. First, there are two notches in the outer bow of the handle and two notches cut in its underside. These are deliberate decorative embellishments.

 

Although zig-zag trackways occur on pins from house floor VIIC (Fig. 83, b-d), they are made in a different way. In the VIIC specimens, two parallel lines were incised and then the trackway was filled with short, crossing lines. In this awl, a single line was incised, short, horizontal lines incised from that line, and the spaces at the tops of these short lines then connected with short strokes that might be slightly concave, straight or slightly convex - producing a more textured, complex design.




Type 2 Split Metapodial Awls (Fig. 78)

   Number of Specimens. 13

   Material. Deer metapodia.

   Measurements and description. These specimens tend to be long and narrow, their tips usually arching smoothly back into their shafts. The cross section varies from irregularly rectangular to ovate.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
6.6-14.5
6.7, 9.6, 12.9
Width
1.0-2.3
1.2-1.4
Thickness
0.7-1.3
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. Two distinct processes appear to be involved in the manufacture of these specimens. In the process most frequently used, the metapodia were cut longitudinally with a chipped stone knife or graver. The long, parallel-sided shaft which this produced than was sharpened at one end, after which final shaping and polishing were completed. In the second process, metapodia were split by fire cracking or adzing rather than cut and broken.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; B, 2; H, 3; I, 3; undesignated, 4
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0 [205/206]

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: 144, Class 1; Pl. XI, m-n
   Gunkel 1961: 214, Style 2
   Osborne 1959: 91; Fig. V, k
   Smith 1899: 148; Figs. 72, 74
   Smith 1913: 420, Fig. 357, b-c; Pl. VII, d, f
   Strong. Schenk, & Steward 1930: 55-56; Pl. 7, a-d, h


Type 3 Splinter Awls (Figs. 79 and 80)

   Number of Specimens. 30

   Material. Mammal long bones.

   Measurements and description. These specimens vary a great deal in cross section and the excellence with which they were executed. Though in most cases there is a well-polished tip which merges smoothly with the shaft, several specimens are nothing but rude splinters of bone whose sharp ends have been utilized or only slightly modified prior to utilization. The six smallest specimens, ranging in length from 4.0 to 7.0 cm., are of this form (Fig, 80). As these all derive from Subcomponent VIIH, it is possible that they may have possessed some specialized function.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
4.0-19.3
6.5, 7.3, 8.7, 11.7
Width
0.35-2.3
0.9-1.3
Thickness
0.3-0.9
0.4-0.7
 

   Technique of manufacture. Though splinters sometimes were prepared by cutting out long narrow sections of long bone with a graver or chipped stone knife, the more usual method was simply to spilt or crush the long bone and select an appropriately shaped splinter. The splinter was then prepared for use by grinding a sharp point at one end and polishing the shaft. In some cases the splinter was used without alteration.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; B, 5; D, 1; E, 1; H, 10; I, 8; undesignated, 3
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Gruhn 1961b:7; 21, Fig. 4, h
   Gunkel 1961:213, Style 1
   Mallory 1962: 14, Item 12; 65, Pl. IX, m
   Osborne 1959: 91; Fig. V, k
   Osborne and Shiner 1950: Pl. VIIa, 47

   Two of the undesignated specimens antedate Subcomponent VIIF; the other cannot be more specifically designated.



Style 1 Ulna Awl (Fig. 81, b)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Ulna, probably that of a carnivore.

   Measurements and description. This specimen possesses the outline of all regular ulna awls. The proximal end of the ulna forms the handle, while the central portion of the shaft has been cut and sharpened to form the awl's tip. This specimen measures 9.8 x 1.8 x 1.2 cm. [206/207]

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen was manufactured by cutting the central portion of the shaft in a diagonal direction by means of a chipped stone knife or graver. This point was sharpened through grinding, and the proximal termination of the ulna was battered to provide a comfortable handle.

   Comments. None.

  

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Cressman 1960:42
   Osborne 1957:83


Form 1 Awl Manufactured from a Splinter of Rib Bone (Fig. 81, a)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Rib bone.

   Measurements and description. This specimen is of irregular outline and cross section, having a chunky, angular butt, and a flat, blade-like tip. It measures 7.3 x 1.2 x 0.6 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen appears to be worked through utilization only.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 2 Awl of Split Bird or Rodent Bone (Fig. 81, c) [see Note 10]

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Bird or rodent bone.

   Measurements and description. Measuring 5.3 x 0.45 x. 0.2 cm., this specimen is narrow and parallel-sided, with smooth edges and a blunt tip.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen appears to have been altered slightly through grinding. It also has been worn heavily through use.

   Comments. None. [207/208]


45KT28/2335. VIIA. This specimen is actually a tine from a basketry comb. As can be seen below, the medulary canal of the split bone has been filled with a pinkish "paste" which probably accumulated as the comb was used and is most likely residue composed partly of a hair preparation.

45KT28/2335. Awl, Form 2 (possibly the tooth of a basketry comb). Cultural Subcomponent VIIA, Cayuse I Subphase.
Click on image for close-up.


 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   none


Awl Fragments

   Number of Specimens. 22

   Material. Material. Mammal long bones.

   Measurements and description. These fragmentary specimens derive from splinter and metapodial awls.

   Technique of manufacture. None.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; C, 1; F, 1; H, 4; I, 11; undesignated, 4
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Pins and Needles

Pins and Needles. There are 17 specimens in this group, four of bone, seven of antler, and six so completely altered by fire hardening that identification of the material used is not possible. The most readily identifiable of the specimens are two flat needles which probably were used in the weaving of mats. One, made of rib, is nearly complete, lacking only a portion of the eye (Fig. 82, g). It measures *13.9 x 0.65 x 0.15 cm. and derives from Subcomponent VIIB. The other, a tip fragment, is made of long bone from an unidentified mammal and measures *4.2 x 0.6 x 0.2 cm. It was recovered from Subcomponent VII-I. Specimens such as these probably were manufactured most often out of hardwood, a fact which would explain their rarity in archaeological sites (Ray 1932:39; Spier and Sapir 1930:189).

   Ten decorated pins were recovered from Subcomponent VIIC. Of these only one, made of antler, was complete (Figs. 82, f; 83, a). Measuring 11.3 x 0.45 x 0.45 cm., it is incised with an elaborate double chevron design which is bordered by blocks of diagonal hatching. Its base is either the reworked eye of a needle or a deliberately made double knob. The fragment of a presumably identical specimen was recovered also. The double chevron motif occurs on two needle fragments recovered from shell heaps on the lower Fraser River (Smith 1903:181, Fig. 49, a-b). The encircling block of diagonal hatching appears near the base of a head scratcher from Kamloops, British Columbia (Smith 1903: 424, Fig. 362). The other eight specimens all are fragmentary. Representative designs may be seen in Figure 83.

   Two other decorated pins were recovered. One was found near the northern edge of the house pit designated Subcomponent VIIH. Because the lip of the house pit is very poorly defined in this particular area, it is impossible to say whether the pin derives from fill just within the house pit or midden just outside the lip, in which ease it may be of somewhat greater age. The base of this specimen, which measures *11.9 x 0.8 x 0.5 cm., has been carved into the tail of a fish (Fig. 82, d). The remaining decorated pin derives from Subcomponent VII-I. It is a basal fragment measuring *11.9 x 0.3 x 0.3 cm. It is decorated with three shallowly incised, telescopic knobs (Fig. 82, c). [208/209]

   In addition, the undecorated tip of a pin or needle was recovered from Subcomponent VII-I. It measures *11.0 x 0.3 x 0.3 cm. and probably possessed a decorated base.

   The two remaining specimens in this group probably represent uneyed needles used in weaving or sewing mats or baskets. One of antler derives from Subcomponent VIIH and measures 15.8 x 0.7 x 0.3 (Fig. 82, a). It is very similar to a specimen reported from the interior of British Columbia (Smith 1913:421, Fig. 358, f). The other, of mammal long bone, is a basal fragment from Subcomponent VII-I which measures *10.4 x 0.5 x 0.35 cm. (Fig. 82. b). Select image to enlarge.

 

   Distribution.
VII: B, 1; C, 10; H, 1; I, 4; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

   
  


Composite Harpoon Valves

Composite Harpoon Valves. The five specimens in this group appear to represent a type of fishing spear widely distributed both in the Plateau and on the coast (Ray 1942:112; Drucker 1950:167; Barnett 1939:229; 1937:164). It consists of two valves between which a point or cutting blade is fixed by means of lashing and pitch. The valves are so contrived that they, themselves, form the barbs of the harpoon, whose shaft or foreshaft is slipped into a socket between the two barbs.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; D, 1; H, 1; I, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

   
  


Type 1. Rectangular Valves with Square Barbs (Figs 84, b; 85, q)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Antler.

   Measurements and description. Each of these specimens may be thought of as a short semicylinder whose flat surface has been dissected by a diagonally plunging plane. This plane forms an acute angle with the valve's curved surface and an oblique angle with its flat surface. Into each of the flat surfaces so formed a semicylinderical groove has been cut. When two matched valves are placed together, each at the longitudinal plane of the other, these grooves form two sockets: one for the harpoon shaft and one for the harpoon's pointed tip. In each of the specimens from 4SKT28, a portion of the socket which accommodated the harpoon's tip has been broken away. Thus the specimens measure *4.6 x 1.2 x 0.6 cm., and *4.1 x 0.8 x 0.6 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. Because they are so well finished, the steps involved in manufacture of these specimens are difficult to define. It is apparent from manufacture scars within the sockets, however, that valves destined to become matched pairs were bound together and the sockets for both tip and shaft drilled into the prepared blanks.

   Comments. None. [209/210]

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 1; I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: 150-51, Class 2: Pl. XVIII, f
   Collier et al., 1942:79
   Crabtree 1957: PI. XXIII, i-j
   Lelander 1958: Fig. 28, 2-193 - 2-198
   Massey and Nelson 1958: 29, 165, 242
   Mills and Osborne 1952: Fig. 107, 1
   Strong, Schenck, and Steward 1930: 60; Pl. 6, j-n


Form 1 Miscellaneous Fragments of Composite Harpoon Valves (Fig. 84, a)

   Number of Specimens. 3

   Material. Antler.

   Measurements and description. The most interesting of the specimens in this group is a fragment of the barb section of the valve which was recovered from Subcomponent VIID. Unlike the specimens of Type 1, it is pointed rather than rectangular in outline and has been incised with a series of triangles and zigzags (see Fig. 84, a). Very fragmentary, it measures *3.3 x 0.9 x 0.8 cm.

   Another, from Subcomponent VII-I, is the barb section of what must have been an unusually large valve. It Is sharply pointed and measures *4.8 x 1.0 x 0.5 cm.

   The third specimen derives from Subcomponent VIIA and appears to have been a valve in the initial stages of socket drilling. As one end has been broken away, this specimen measures *3.8 x 0.6 x 0.4 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. See this heading, Type 1.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; D, 1; I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Composite Harpoon Tips

   Composite Harpoon Tips (Fig. 85, m-n). Only three specimens, which may be unquestionably classified as composite harpoon tips, were recovered. For comments on their ethnographic distribution, see the section on composite harpoon valves. [210-211]



Style 1 Cylindrical Composite Harpoon tips (Fig. 85, m-n)

   Number of Specimens. 3

   Material. One is of antler and two are of bone.

   Measurements and description. Each of these specimens may be thought of as a small cylinder with a rounded base and a sharply pointed tip. The cross section is circular and the workmanship very fine. Only the bone specimens are complete, measuring 4.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 cm., and 4.1 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding and polishing.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 2; I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Collier et al., 1942: Pl. VIII, j


Composite Harpoon tips and/or Barbs of Three-Pronged Fish Spears

 

Composite Harpoon Tips and/or Barbs of Three-Pronged Fish Spears (Fig. 85, i-l, o-p, r-s). The 11 specimens in this category are rather diverse in form, and their exact use is therefore obscure. The majority are too large to have served as composite harpoon tips, at least in association with Type 1 valves. And yet their general form is similar. Others are basally thinned (see Fig. 85, o-p) and may possibly have served as projectile points. The bulk, however, are probably best assigned the function of barbs for three-pronged salmon spears, an implement with a wide distribution in the Plateau (Ray 1942: 113).

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; I, 5; undesignated, 5
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

45Kt28/746 VII-I Spear barb.
Use "view image" to enlarge.

 
  


Type 1 (Fig. 85, j-l, r-s)

   Number of Specimens. 8

   Material. Five are of bone and three are of antler.

   Measurements and description. Measurements and description. These specimens, as those illustrated in Figure 85 reveal, vary considerably to the details of outline and cross section. All are, however, obviously designed to be halted, having definite bases and tips. They are thick and heavily constructed for their lengths, and two appear to have been broken while under a considerable amount of pressure (Fig. 85, r-s). [211/212]

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
4.4-6.3
none
Width
0.8-1.1
none
Thickness
0.45-0.7
0.7
 

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding and polishing.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 1; I, 4; undesignated, 3
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Collier et al., 1942: Pl. VII, h
   Osborne, Bryan, & Crabtree 1961: Pl. 52b, 139


Form 1 Miscellaneous Barbs or Composite Harpoon Tips (Fig. 85, i, o-p)

   Number of Specimens. 3

   Material. Two are of antler and one is of bone.

   Measurements and description. The bone specimen has a fiat blade and is laterally thinned at the base. Measuring 5.3 x 0.6 x 0.4 cm., it may have had a variety of functions: a barb in a spear, a composite harpoon tip, or even a projectile point. It derives from Cultural Component VII. The smaller antler specimen (Fig. 85, p) measures 2.3 x 0.7 x 0.5 cm. Its base is transversely thinned, and it is remarkably like a specimen illustrated by Smith (1910: Fig. 7). The remaining specimen is a biconical antler point measuring 5.1 x 0.9 x 0.8 cm (Fig. 85, i). Similar to large specimens from Cultural Components VI and VII (see bone projectile points, Style 1). It may have been used as a point rather than a barb or composite harpoon tip.

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding and polishing.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1, I, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Smith 1910: Fig. 7


Lateral Barb Guards for Three-Pronged Salmon Spears

Lateral Barb Guards for Three-Pronged Salmon Spears (Figs. 86, d-e). These two specimens, both from Subcomponent VIIA, are fragments of cylindrical, bipronged objects such as those illustrated by Swanson (1958-9; 1962a). Each would have been about 8.0 cm. in length and 3.4 cm. in diameter, with the flat, blade-tike prongs accounting for about 5,0 cm. of the total length. [212/213]

   Hafted specimens from Fish Hook Island on the Lower Snake River indicate that these and other specimens of similar construction from elsewhere in the Plateau are guards for the lateral barbs of three-pronged salmon spears (Daugherty and Combes 1962: personal communication).

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Crabtree 1957: Pl. XXII, i; XXIII, e
   Osborne, Bryan, and Crabtree 1961: Pl. 52b, 41
   Swanson 1958-59: Fig. 1, b
   Swanson 1962a: Fig. 32, a


45KT28/1470. Drawing of Fig. 86d by Delmar Nordquist, providing both top and side views of a salmon spear barb guard. This figure was not included in the original publication for budgetary reasons.

45KT28/1470. SALMON SPEAR BARB GUARD OF ANTLER. VIIA. CAYUSE I SUBPHASE.



Projectile Points (?)

Projectile Points (?). Although the function of the 18 specimens in this group has not been ascertained with complete certainty, there are at least some good ethnographic indications that projectile points of this general sort were used for hunting deer (Ray 1942:150-51). In addition, Swanson (1959:169) recovered such a point imbedded in the skull of a mountain sheep which was found in midden beneath house pits at the Schaake Village, near Vantage, Washington.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; B, 2; G, 1; H, 2; I, 8; undesignated, 1
 VI: 1
  V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Type 1 Slender, Basally Thinned projectile Points (Fig. 85, a-f)

   Number of Specimens. 10

   Material. Eight are of bone and two are of antler.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this type are long and slender, having slightly convex to straight edges and sharply pointed tips. Each is basally thinned, though the amount of thinning varies greatly from one specimen to the next Al1 are highly finished.

   The following measurements are based on four specimens.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
7.35-10.7
none
Width
0.6-0.8
none
Thickness
0.3-0.5
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens were probably made on blanks blocked out of bone or antler with a chipped stone knife or graver. Grinding and polishing were then used to shape the blanks. [213/214]

   Comments. It appears that projectile points of this type either developed from or replaced biconical antler points (Style 1), probably during the Cayuse I Subphase. However, because of the limited sample at hand, this observation must be taken as an hypothesis rather than a conclusion.

 

   Distribution.
VII: B, 2; G, 1; H, 1; I, 5; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: 143, Class IV: Pl. XI, 1
   Collier et al., 1942: 77; PI. VIII, e-.f
   Crabtree 1957: PI. XXII, e
   Daugherty 1952: Fig. 114, 3-5
   Osborne, Bryan, and Crabtree 1961: Pl. 52b, 37
   Strong, Schenck, and Steward 1930: 58; Pl. 7, n, r
   Shiner 1961: Pl. 39a, e

Drawings of Fig. 85c (left) and 85o (right) by Delmar Nordquist, providing both top and side views. This figure was not included in the original publication for budgetary reasons.





Style 1 Biconical Antler Points (Figs. 14, p; 16, b)

   Number of Specimens. 4

   Material. Antler.

   Measurements and description. These specimens, which are all fragmentary, would have resembled the barb or composite harpoon tip illustrated in Figure 85, i, the main difference between the two categories being one of size. The four points in this group would probably have ranged from 8.0 to 10.0 cm. to length and 0.7 to 1.0 cm. in diameter. They are characterized by circular cross sections; long, slightly tapering shanks; and short, pointed tips. The specimen from Cultural Component V is very fragmentary and therefore somewhat suspect. It is, however, definitely part of an antler point.

   Technique of manufacture. Presumably these specimens were blocked out by means of cutting with a chipped stoned knife or graver and then finished by grinding and polishing.

   Comments. See bone and antler projectile points, Type 1.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2
 VI: 1
  V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Style 2 Bipointed Bone Projectile Point (Fig. 85, h)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Bone. [214/215]

   Measurements and description. This specimen is a long, slender, bipointed bone point with an ovate cross section. It measures 8.6 x 0.5 x 0.35 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen was blocked out by means of cutting with a chipped stone knife or graver and finished by grinding and polishing.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: 143, Class IA; Pl. IX, k
   Smith 1910: 27; 28, Fig. 9
   Strong, Schenck, and Steward 1930: 58, Pl. 7, n, r


Style 3 Bilaterally Barbed Antler Projectile Points (Fig. 85, t-u)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Antler.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group are bilaterally barbed antler points whose stems, or shanks, have been basally thinned. The edges of the body are slightly recurved, the barbs pointed. These specimens measure 6.2 x 1.1 x 0.3 cm., and 3.5 x 0.8 x 0.3 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens were probably blocked out by cutting, then finished by grinding and whittling with a stone knife.

 

   Comments. None.

   Distribution.
VII: I, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: 157, Class 8; Pl. XIX, e
   Strong, Schenck, and Steward 1930: 60; Pl. 6. f
45KT28/797 Barbed Antler Point. VII-I.

Use "view image"
to enlarge.



Form 1 Cylindrical Bone Point (Fig. 85, g)

   Number of Specimens. 1 [215/216]

   Material. Bone.

   Measurements and description. This specimen is a tapering cylinder of bone with straight edges and a circular cross section. It measures *7.3 x 0.6 x 0.6 cm., the tip having been broken away.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen was presumably blocked out by cutting with a stone knife or graver and then finished by grinding and polishing.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Hafts

Hafts. Three hafts, all of antler, were recovered, though objects which may have been hafted in them were never found.


Type 1 Antler Beam Adze Hafts (Fig. 86, b)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Antler.

   Measurements and description. Each of these specimens consists of the beam section of an antler, carefully adzed and shaved to remove irregularities. Only one is complete, measuring 10.5 x 2.9 x 2.2 cm. There is a socket in one end which is 2.9 cm. in depth.

   Technique of manufacture. Adzing and shaving.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: G, 1: I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Carlson 1960: 568, Fig. 4A, r
   Collier et al., 1942: 83 Antler Knife Handle
   Garner 1960: 6-7
   Smith 1900: 415, Fig. 348
   Smith 1903: 164, Fig. 29, d-e
   Smith 1907: Fig. 129; 314, Fig. 107
   Teit 1900: 184, Fig. 125
   Teit 1906: 204, Fig. 66 [216/217]


Form 1 Antler Tine Haft (Fig. 86, c)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Antler.

   Measurements and description. This specimen consists of a tip of an antler tine, into the adzed end of which a conical hole 1.5 cm. deep has been drilled. In addition, a V-shaped longitudinal groove has been cut into the inner edge of the tine. This specimen measures 7.0 x 2.0 x 1.9 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. Adzing, drilling and cutting.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Teit 1906: 204, Fig. 67


Digging Stick Handles

Digging Stick Handles (Figs. 86, a; 87). Two antler digging stick handles were recovered. One (Fig. 86, a and page header, above) antedates Subcomponent VIIG and is unusual only in that the tip of the tine is transversely grooved. The overall dimensions are 18.5 x 3.1 x 2.6 cm. The other specimen, from the floor of Subcomponent VIIB, measures 24.0 x 3.4 x 2.4 cm. It has been elaborately decorated with incised designs and may be seen in Figure 87.

   The design which appears on the larger specimen may be divided into the following elements: (1) circular lines used to divide the digging stick handle into segments and to border the major areas covered by the design; (2) design-filled zigzags formed by closely spaced parallel lines; (3) triangles, sometimes filled, which serve to terminate the zigzags; and (4) the use of lateral hatching as embellishment. The distribution of these elements in the Northwest is especially interesting. Fine lateral hatching used to embellish elements in straight-line geometrical design appears to be particularly common in the Salishan Plateau and neighboring costal area. From the Pot Holes, a site across the Columbia River from 45KT28, Crabtree (1957: Plate XXVII. a, f, design type 3) reports its use on Dentalia beads. He also illustrates an incised antler object (Plate XXVI, b) in which it is used as a bordering element in the same way it is used on the digging stick handle from Subcomponent VIIB. Farther north Collier, Hudson, and Ford (1942: Fig. 14, a) recovered the fragment of a digging stick handle on which this motif was used as a longitudinal bordering element. This specimen came from their site 46, about four miles south of the Canadian border. As both this site and the Pot Holes represent the very late prehistoric and early historic, the lateral hatch is a design element which must have been in common use along the Upper Columbia during the entire Cayuse Phase.

   Between the Canadian border and Lake Kamloops, some 110 miles to the north, there is a general hiatus of archaeological data. At Kamloops, however, the design again occurs as an element of decoration on a pipe bowl (Smith 1913:429). Moving into the Thompson-Fraser region, we see that Smith has reported three artifacts in which the lateral hatch is used (1899: Figs. 21 and 110; 1913: Plate XIV, i). He also reports (1899: 156-57) that some Thompson Indians of whom he inquired thought that this design might represent the wood-worm.

   There is also some evidence which suggests that the lateral hatch motif occasionally was used to decorate barbed bone points in the area of the Fraser River delta (Smith 1903) and on Puget Sound (Smith 1907: Fig. 141, b). [217/218]

   Other examples are comparatively rare. Heflin (1961) illustrates a tubular pipe from the Willamette Valley of Oregon on which there are incised bands of design-filled triangles identical to those which appear on the digging stick handle from Subcomponent VIIB.

   In addition there are two specimens from Wakemap Mound, one zoomorphic and the anthropomorphic, which contain this decorative element in the form of minor embellishments. The anthropomorphic figure has many counterparts recovered from the area of The Dalles, but to my knowledge no other is so decorated. This it should be noted, represents an extremely small percentage of the vast number of decorated objects taken from The Dalles locale and the entire Middle Columbia.

   It is an intriguing fact that the lateral hatch and the various motifs with which it was combined have a distribution which coincides rather closely with the ethnographic distribution of Salishan speaking peoples. No specimens have been reported from Sahaptin areas, and the two specimens reported from Wakemap Mound, a site which is probably Chinookan, have used the design in a different manner.

 

   Distribution.
VII: B, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Collier et al., 1942: 82-84
   Mallory 1962; 49, Item 4
   Osborne 1957: 84-85


Spatulate Scrapers

Spatulate Scrapers (Fig. 88, a-d). The artifacts included in this category have in common a narrow, rectangular outline, and one or two thin scraping edges which reveal signs of abrasion. There are six in all, two of rib bones, two utilized splinters of mammal long bone, one section of scapula, and a bar of antler. The rib bones, one of which comes from Subcomponent VIIF and the other from an undesignated portion of Cultural Component VII, have each been heavily utilized along their caudal edges. They measure 18.25 x 1.6 x 0.7 cm., and 20.3 x 3.25 x 0.5 cm.

   The use of deer and elk ribs in the scraping of hides prior to their curing is widely reported for Plateau groups (Ray 1942: 125; Spier and Sapir 1930: 200).

   The split pieces of mammal bone, one from Cultural Component VI and the other from Subcomponent VIIB, have been intensively utilized along the naturally sharp edges of fracture. They measure 13.4 x 2.0 x 1.0 cm. and 10.1 x 1.75 x 0.3 cm. Such implements have been ethnographically reported both for the preparation of skins prior to tanning (Ray 1942:125) and in the manufacture of arrows and bows (Ray 1932:88).

   The piece of cut scapula (Fig. 88, d) derives from Subcomponent VIIA and measures *9.9 x 1.9 x 0.3 cm. It consists of a portion of palm which has been cut out with a stone knife and has the outline of a knife blade. Its convex edge has been utilized, and it is inferred that its function is similar to that of the other specimens in this group.

   The remaining specimen is a long, rectangular antler bar (Fig. 88, b) one edge of which appears to have been utilized, probably in scraping soft materials such as skins. Fragmentary, it measures *17.1 x 2.2 x 0.3 cm., and derives from Subcomponent VIIG. [218/219]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; B, 1; F, 1; G, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 1
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Fleshing Implements (?)

Fleshing Implements (?). Two specimens were recovered which tentatively have been identified as fleshing Implements similar to the specimen recovered and illustrated by Osborne (1957:86; Pl. 8b, 15), One, from Cultural Component VII, is the fragment of a specimen which would have duplicated the one illustrated by Osborne. Complete it would have consisted of a longitudinally dissected deer cannon bone, the proximal end of which had been ground into a convex fleshing bit. The other specimen (Fig. 88, e), which measures 14.8 x 1.7 x 0.8 cm. and derives from Subcomponent VIIA, is simply a split piece of long bone which has been furnished with a similar bit.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

   
  


Splinter Scrapers or Fleshers

Splinter Scrapers or Fleshers. These specimens, of which there are five, are long and narrow, having an outline like the bone flakers illustrated in Figure 89 (a-b). They are bluntly pointed and show polish and flaking due to utilization along edges adjacent to their tips.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
4.45-9.8
6.1-6.8
Width
1.1-1.7
none
Thickness
0.5-0.7
none
 

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; B, 1; F, 1; G, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

   
  


Pressure Flaking Tools Used in the Manufacture of Clipped Stone Artifacts

Pressure Flaking Tools Used in the Manufacture of Clipped Stone Artifacts (Fig. 89). A total of 58 bone and antler flaking implements were recovered, all, interestingly enough, from Cultural Component VII. Despite a thriving flaking industry in each of the earlier components and the presence of unworked antler tines in Cultural Component VI, no flaking implement was recovered from any of the earlier components. This may in part reflect relative sample sizes, but probably is related also to a greater reliance on percussion flaking prior to the Cayuse Phase. [219-220]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 7; B, 1; D, 8; E, 1; H, 16; I, 13, undesignated, 12
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

   
  


Type 1 Antler Tine Flakers (Fig. 89, g-j)

   Number of Specimens. 46

   Material. Antler tines.

   Measurements and description. These specimens consist of antler tines the tips of which have been modified through utilization.

   Technique of manufacture. Normally a tine simply is adzed from the antler and utilized. One specimen (Fig. 89, i) was dissected longitudinally first by means of cutting with a chipped stone knife or graver.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
6.4-18.8
none
Width
1.3-7.5
1.6-2.0
Thickness
0.9-3.1
1.0-1.2
 

   Comments. None.None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 6; B, 1; D, 4; H, 13; I, 13; undesignated, 9
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: 165
   Cressman 1960: 41; Fig. 37a
   Crabtree 1957: pl. XXII, e, h
   Osborne, 1957: 83; Pl. 12, b; 23, a
   Osborne, Crabtree, and Bryan 1952: 361
   Osborne and Shiner 1950: Pl. VIIIb, 70


Style 1 Rectangular Bar Flakers (Fig. 89, e-f)

   Number of Specimens. 7

   Material. Antler. [220/221]

   Measurements and description. These specimens are long and narrow with a rectangular outline and cross section. One end has been shaped into a blunt bit used in pressure flaking. The other end is rounded off. Only two of these specimens are complete, measuring 6.8 x 0.7 x 0.5 cm., and 4.8 x 0.35 x 0.35 cm. The largest of the fragments measures *8.8 x 1.2 x 0.7 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens were blocked out by means of a stone knife or graver and finished by shaving or whittling with a stone scraper or knife.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; D, 3; H, 2; undesignated. 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 1 Split Long Bone Flakers (Fig. 89, a-b)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Mammal long bone.

   Measurements and description. These specimens consist of long, narrow splinters of long bone which have been pointed at one end and utilized in flaking. They measure 9.8 x 1.5 x 0.8 cm,, and 8.8 x 1.2 x 0.7 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. A suitable splinter of bone was selected and one end ground to a blunt point. Utilization followed.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: D, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Butler 1962a: Fig. 15, b


Form 2 Shaved Antler Beam Flaker

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Antler.

   Measurements and description. This specimen consists of the proximal end of an antler which has been diagonally shaved to a blunt point and then utilized as a flaker. It measures 15.3 x 4.5 x 4.0 cm. [221/222]

   Technique of manufacture. Adzing and shaving.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 3 Polished Bone Flakers (Fig. 89, c-d)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Bone.

   Measurements and description. One of these specimens (Fig. 89, c), coming from Subcomponent VIIE, is the penis bone of a bear which has been polished, sharpened, and used as a flaking implement It measures 9.3 x 0.9 x 0.8 cm.

   The other specimen (Fig. 89, d), deriving from Subcomponent VIIH, is a large splinter of long bone which has been ground into a roughly tapering cylinder, the narrow end of which is pointed, the wide end having been rounded. This specimen measures 8.5 x 1.2 x 0,9 cm., and, like its companion, displays clear signs of being utilized as a flaker.

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding and polishing.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: E, 1, H, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Antler Splitting Wedges

Antler Splitting Wedges (Fig. 90, b-e). Unilaterally beveled antler splitting wedges were common throughout the Plateau during the ethnographic period (Ray 1942:145). In addition there is some indication that they may have had a secondary use in dehairing and scraping hides in the skin-dressing process (Spier and Sapir 1930:200; Ray 1942:125).



Type 1 Unilaterally Beveled Antler Splitting Wedges (Fig. 90, b-e)

   Number of Specimens. 22

   Material. Antler. [222/223]

   Measurements and description. These specimens, manufactured from the beam sections of antlers, have been diagonally cut to form a unilaterally beveled bit. Splinters knocked from their striking platforms and blunted bits demonstrate that these specimens have all been used as splitting wedges. The following measurements are based on six complete specimens.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
7.4-19.4
14.0-15.0
Width
2.5-4.8
none
Thickness
1.7-3.6
3.3-3.6
 

   Technique of manufacture. Beam sections were removed and beveled by adzing and shaving. The finished product was then produced by grinding.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; C, 1; D, 1; F, 1; F, 4; H, 1; I, 5; undesignated, 6
 VI: 2
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: 162, P1. XX, a-b
   Collier et al., 1942: 86. PL VII, c-e
   Cressman 1960: 42, Type b; Fig. 38a, B, D, F
   Osborne 1957: 85-86
   Smith 1899: 141
   Smith 1900: Fig. 345
   Smith 1910: Fig. 39
   Strong, Schenck, & Steward 1930:70; Pl. 10, a-c, e
   Teit 1900: Fig. 119


Bone Chisel

Bone Chisel (Fig. 90, a). This specimen, deriving from Cultural Component VII, is long and very narrow, having a bilaterally ground bit and a striking platform from, which several splinters have been detached. The bit has been ground to a very fine, sharp edge. This specimen measures 10.0 x 0.9 x 0.8 cm.

 

   Distribution.
VII: undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

   
  


Beaver Tooth Chisels or Engravers

Beaver Tooth Chisels or Engravers (Fig. 91, b-c). Hafted beaver tooth engravers have been widely reported for Plateau groups (Ray 1942:147). In addition, hafted specimens have been reported by Duff (1956:67-72) and Smith (1899:145, Fig. 53).



Type 1 Beaver Tooth Engravers. (Fig. 91, b-c) [223/224]

   Number of Specimens. 5

   Material. Beaver teeth.

   Measurements and description. These specimens consist of unsplit or longitudinally split incisors, the biting edge of which has been sharpened through grinding.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.6-5.0
none
Width
0.5-0.8
none
Thickness
0.3-0.55
0.3
 

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding.

   Comments. A hafted beaver tooth engraver was recovered from Fish Hook Island on the lower course of the Snake River (Daugherty and Combes 1963: personal communication).

 

   Distribution.
VII: A. 1; H, 1; L, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 1 (recovered from beach)

  Comparable specimens.
   Duff 1956: 66-72
   Smith 1899: Fig. 49


Worked Canine Tooth

Worked Canine Tooth (Fig, 91, a). A single, apparently worked or utilized canine tooth from a carnivore was recovered from Cultural Component VII. A portion of biting surface has been flaked away and the tooth worn slightly along the broken surface. This specimen, whose function is not known, measures 4.1 x 1.0 x 0.9 cm.



Small Bone Hammer ?

Small Bone Hammer ? (Fig. 92, a). This specimen which derives from Subcomponent VIIC, is rather unique. It is trough-shaped, being a piece of longitudinally split long bone, and one end has been severely battered. This is made very clear by a bone flake which was found in association with the hammer. The flake matches one of the largest flake scars which extends longitudinally back from the striking platform, but when fitted into place extends 0.5 cm beyond that platform, clearly demonstrating the extensive use to which the specimen has been put. This specimen measures 7.7 x 2.1 x 1.3 cm.



Percussion Flaked Bar of Bone

Percussion Flaked Bar of Bone (Fig. 92, b). This specimen, which comes from Cultural Component VII, is a rectangular piece of long bone which has been shaped by means of percussion flaking. One end possesses a chisel-like bit and is probably connected in some way with this object's use. This specimen measures 7.0 x 1.7 x 0.6 cm.



Bone Tools Found Among the Faunal Remains

Identifiable bone was removed from level bags and cataloged separately, the numbers prefixed only with a "B"; e.g. B-907. A separate catalog was created for these specimens, which number well over 2,000. Recently, in organizing this material, I (CMN) noticed that quite a number of flaked bone tools had been missed. Some of these are pictured below.


USE "VIEW IMAGE" TO ENLARGE EACH INDIVIDUAL VIEW.

45KT28/B907. VIIL, Cayuse III. This specimen has a spiral fracture ending in a burin-like edge; both exhibit edge polish.


USE "VIEW IMAGE" TO ENLARGE EACH INDIVIDUAL VIEW.

45KT28/B1298. VIIUnd, Cayuse Phase. This specimen has a chisel-like end flaked so that the edge is straight both in plan view and when viewed edge-on.



USE "VIEW IMAGE" TO ENLARGE EACH INDIVIDUAL VIEW.

45KT28/B126. VIIUnd, Cayuse Phase. Bone burin with utilized and fire hardened bit.



Gambling Bones

Gambling Bones (Fig. 93, a-f). Sixteen gambling bones were recovered from Cultural Component VII. Of these, 13 were found on two house floors, and two were in association with one another in Subcomponent VIIA. Thus the sample is somewhat more selective than its size actually indicates.

   These specimens were probably used in the dice game or the stick game, forms of entertainment widely distributed in the Plateau (Ray 1942:183-84). [224/225]


Images of five examples taken from color slides. See Fig. 93 for details. Use "View image" to enlarge the individual image of each specimen.


Type I Gambling Bone Decorated with Opposable Triangles (Fig. 93, f)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Antler.

   Measurements and description. Specimens of this type have slightly excurvate edges, squared off ends, and are oval in cross section. The design appeals on one side only and, though it may be embellished with a variety of supplementary decorations, basically consists of a transverse bisecting line or rectangle to either ride of which is set an isosceles triangle. The specimen from 45KT28, which measures 5.7 x 1.2 x 0.6 cm., is decorated with an extremely simple version of this motif.

   Technique of manufacture. Shaving, incising and grinding.

   Comments. This type is most common in the Dalles locale, where it is believed to have been used between 1600 and 1800 A.D. Specimens from the Upper Columbia region are rare, thus far having been found in very late prehistoric and historic sites. In this area other types of gaming pieces are far more common, a fact suggesting that Type 1 gambling bones were imported from the area of The Dalles in late Cayuse III times, probably between 1700 and 1800 A.D.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Butler 1958-59: 68, Fig. 1, b-c
   Crabtree 1957: 84; PI. XXIII, b
   Strong 1959: Fig. 90
   Strong, Schenck, and Steward 1930: 59; Pl. 6, o


Style 1 Gambling Bones Decorated with Transverse Lines (Fig. 93, b-e)

   Number of Specimens. 12

   Material. Five are of broad mammal rib, and seven are of long bone splinters. Specimens made of each material were present in both the subcomponents from which this style was recovered.

   Measurements and description. Each specimen made of rib bone has been altered only through decoration, which consists of numerous transverse scratches that cluster together to form four to eight ill-defined lines per specimen. The bone specimens retain the outline of the splinters from which they were manufactured and are decorated with incised, transverse lines or grooves. The number of these per specimen varies from 5 to 10, and in some cases they are arranged in pairs. In one specimen (Fig. 93, e) the lines have been replaced by rows of dots.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
5.8-7.9
none
Width
0.9-2.1
none
Thickness
0.4-0.6
0.5
 

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding and incising. [225/226]

   Comments. A number of specimens of this style were found by a collector in a house pit across the river from 45KT28.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 5; I, 7
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (bone not preserved)
   I: 0 (bone not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Style 2 Gambling Bones Decorated with Open Zigzags

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Mammal rib.

   Measurements and description. This specimen was well formed, having slightly excurvate edges and rounded extremities. One surface is decorated with opposing sets of diagonal lines or open zigzags. Unfortunately this specimen is fragmentary. Whole it would have measured 6.5 x 1.3 x 0.5 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding and incising.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: L, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (bone not preserved)
   I: 0 (bone not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Osborne, Crabtree, & Bryan 1952: 363, Pl 110, a


Form 1 Undecorated Gambling Bones (Fig. 93, a)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Bone.

   Measurements and description. These specimens are long and narrow with rounded ends and subrectangular cross sections. They are well made, measuring 8.2 x 1.3 x 0.5 cm., and 7.8 x 1.3 x 0.5 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding and polishing.

   Comments. These specimens were found in direct association with one another. [226/227]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (bone not preserved)
   I: 0 (bone not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1959: 59, Class 15; Pl. XIX, m
   Strong, Schenck, and Steward 1930: 58; Pl. 6, q


Beads and Pendants

Beads and Pendants. There are 33 specimens in this category, of which three are antler. Two decorated specimens, it should be noted, were recovered from Cultural Component V and thus derive from the late Frenchman Springs Phase. Though too fragmentary to be assigned a specific function, they demonstrate that decoration through design incising probably was established prior to 1000 B.C.

 

   Distribution.
VII: B, 2; C, 2; G, 1; H, 2; I, 7, L, 1; undesignated, 16
 VI: 0
  V: 2
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (bone not preserved)
   I: 0 (bone not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
  


Type 1 Tubular Bird Bone Beads (Fig. 93, j-l)

   Number of Specimens. 12

   Material. Bird bones.

   Measurements and description. Measurements and description. As the specimens illustrated in Figure 93 suggest, these beads vary in diameter and length. Eight long, narrow beads were recovered (Fig. 93, k). These ranged in length from 4.3 to 3.9 cm., in width from 0.4 to 0.3 cm., and in thickness from 0.35 to 0.2 cm. Two of the remaining four specimens were short and of comparatively large diameter (Fig. 93, j). These measure 1.1 x 1.4 x 1.2 cm., and 1.4 x 1.55 x 1.25 cm. The remaining specimens (Fig. 93, l) are of intermediate dimensions, measuring 2.1 x 0,7 x 0.6 cm., and 3.0 x 0.9 x 0.8 cm. One of these, from Subcomponent VIIC, has shallowly serrated rims.


45KT28-1092 Bird Bone Bead, Type I, VII-I, Cayuse III Subphase

45KT28/1092. Bird Bone Bead, Type 1. VII-I. Cayuse III Subphase. (Fig. 93,l)
Use "view image" to enlarge.




   Technique of manufacture. Sections of bird bone were cut and broken into the desired lengths. They were then finished by grinding and polishing.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: C, 1; G, 1; I, 5; undesignated, 5
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (bone not preserved)
   I: 0 (bone not preserved) [227/228]
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Collier et al., 1942: 88; Pl. X, k
   Osborne 1957: 88; Pl. 23a; 28

   The undesignated specimens all appear to be from the upper portions of Cultural Component VII, and probably represent Cayuse II and III materials.



Style 1 Elongate Rib Pendants (Fig. 93. g-i)

   Number of Specimens. 13

   Material. The ribs of large mammals.

   Measurements and description. These specimens are long, thin, flat sections of rib perforated at one end and bluntly pointed at the other. Though usually smooth, the edges of two specimens were serrated (Fig. 93, i). Presumably because of their delicacy, all of the specimens in tills group are fragmentary. Fragments vary in thickness from 0.2 to 0.3 cm. and in width from 0.8 to 1.7 cm., the mode being 1.0 cm. The longest fragment measures 8.65 cm.; maximum length probably did not exceed 10.0 or 11.0 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding, polishing, and perforating.

   Comments. All but the two perforated bases and a few of the larger fragments were recovered from the level bags. Many of the fragments were quite small, and, due to their shape and the type of bone from which they were made, quite easy to bypass in the field. It is likely, then, that they have occurred at many excavated sites in the Plateau, but were either missed in the field or languish in as yet unopened level bags.


45KT28/1744, VIIG, Cayuse II
Use "view image" to enlarge
 

   Distribution.
VII: B, 2; H, 1; undesignated, 10
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (bone not preserved)
   I: 0 (bone not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

   The 10 undesignated specimens were distributed throughout Cultural Component VII.

Form 1 Large Bird Bone Beads or Drinking Tubes

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Bird bones.

   Measurements and description. These specimens are long, slender tubes with highly polished exteriors. Both are fragmentary. Complete they would have measured approximately 8.0 cm. in length and 1.4 cm. in diameter.

   Technique of manufacture. The ends of long bird bones were detached by cutting and breaking. The ends and exteriors of the remaining shafts were then polished.

   Comments. These specimens may also be the fragments of shaman's sucking tubes. [228/229]

 

   Distribution.
VII: C, 1; I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (bone not preserved)
   I: 0 (bone not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 2 Rectangular Antler Bead (Fig. 93, n)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Antler.

   Measurements and description. This specimen was manufactured from a fragment of what must have been a thick-walled tubular object, probably a bead. Through simple redrilling it was converted into a rectangular bead measuring 2.6 x 1.5 x 0.7 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. See above, Measurements and description.

   Comments. None.

  

 

   Distribution.
VII: L, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None


Form 3 Triangular Antler Pendant (Fig. 93, o)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Antler.

   Measurements and description. This specimen is shaped roughly like an isosceles triangle whose apex has been pulled into a small knob. It is decorated with diagonal lines on the obverse and closely spaced transverse lines around its perimeter. It measures 3.9 x 1.7 x 0.7 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding and incising.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0 [229/230]


The component was incorrectly reported in the published report as VIIUnd.


  Comparable specimens.
None.

45KT28/2148, VIIA.

Use "view image" to enlarge.



Form 4 Incised Antler Bar (Fig. 93, m)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Antler.

   Measurements and description. This specimen is a central fragment of a thin, broad, slightly curved antler bar whose obverse side has been diagonally incised with a number of deep grooves. The bar is broken at each end along such grooves. It measures *3.5 x 2.2 x 0.2 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. Cutting and grinding.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

This elk tooth is from CC VIID, Cayuse I Subphase. The root appears too in tact for it to have been drilled to be used as a bead or pendant. Technically a faunal remain, it was excluded from the original report. However, since unperforated elk teeth are known to have been sewn into clothing and jewelry, it is worth mentioning. Use "View image" to enlarge.


Fragments of Incised Bone Objects

Fragments of Incised Bone Objects

   Number of Specimens. 3

   Material. Bone.

   Measurements and description. Original forms cannot be reconstructed for any of these specimens. The fragment from Subcomponent VIIH came from a flat object in the obverse side of which many dots have been drilled. One of the specimens from Cultural Component V is from the edge of an object which was incised with diagonal lines. The other was evidently a flat object, at least one surface of which was more elaborately decorated. The surviving fragment is incised with a zigzag line which is interspaced with dots.

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding, incising, and polishing.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 2
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (bone not preserved)
   I: 0 (bone not preserved)
 und.: 0 [230/231]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Antler Comb

Antler Comb (Fig. 95). A rectangular antler comb was recovered from Cultural Component VII. Its body measures 5.5 x 3.0 x 0.5 cm., and along one of the longer edges there are the remains of 10 teeth which would have averaged approximately 2.5 cm. in length, bringing the over-all measurements to 5.5 x 5.5 x 0.5 cm. Along the other edge there is a row of 12 knob-like projections which may be the reworked remains of another row of teeth. The body of this specimen has been decorated by three rows of double stippling, and the teeth have been embellished with shallow serrations.


45KT28-333 Antler Comb from VIIH, Cayuse III Subphase

45KT28/333. Antler Comb. VIIH. Cayuse III Subphase.
Use "view image" to enlarge.




   The stipple design has been reported on an antler haft recovered from Whalen II, a site located in southwestern British Columbia (Duff 1956: Pl. 1, a). Rectangular antler combs appear to be quite rare in the archaeological record, comparable specimens being reported by Huntzinger (1962) and Smith (1899:150, Fig. 83). This fact agrees well with ethnographic information, which indicates that the most common type was a compound wooden comb (Ray 1942: 170).



Fragments of Projectile Points, Composite Harpoon Tips,
and Barbs from Three-Pronged Salmon Harpoons

Fragments of Points, Composite Harpoon Tips, Three-Pronged Salmon Harpoon Spears, Awls, and Needles, Bone Flakers, and Other Pointed Objects. There are 28 specimens in this group, the possible functions of which are listed above. Unfortunately, more positive identification is not possible.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 4; B, 1; C, 1; D, 1; F, 1; G, 1; H, 3; I, 11; undesignated, 5
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (bone not preserved)
   I: 0 (bone not preserved)
 und.: 0

   
  


Fragmentary Antler Artifacts

Fragmentary Antler Artifacts. The 23 specimens in this category represent a wide variety of forms, although specific identification is in each case impossible.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 8; B, 3; F, 3; I, 2; undesignated, 6
 VI: 1
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (bone not preserved)
   I: 0 (bone not preserved)
 und.: 0

   
  


Fragmentary Bone Artifacts

Fragmentary Bone Artifacts. The 47 specimens in this category represent a wide variety of forms, although specific identification is in each case impossible. [231/232]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 5; B, 9; C, 1; D, 2; F, 2; H, 4; I, 1; L. 1; undesignated, 20
 VI: 1
  V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (bone not preserved)
   I: 0 (bone not preserved)
 und.: 0

   
  


Cut Bone Detritus

Cut Bone Detritus (Fig. 96, a-d). The 25 specimens in this category are, variously, blanks prepared for the manufacture of such artifacts as bone points and awls, and trimmings discarded in the manufacture of such blanks.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 7; B, 1; C, 1; D, 2; G, 3; H, 1; L, 1; undesignated, 6
 VI: 3
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (bone not preserved)
   I: 0 (bone not preserved)
 und.: 0

   
  


Cut Antler, Detritus from the Manufacture of Artifacts

Cut Antler, Detritus from the Manufacture of Artifacts. The five specimens in this group are detritus from the manufacture of antler artifacts such as composite harpoon valves and tips, projectile points, and flaking implements.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; B, 1; C, 1; I, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0

   
  


Adzed Antler Beams, Detritus from the Manufacture of Artifacts

Artifacts ((Fig. 96, e-f). Nine adzed sections of antler beams were recovered and are presumably detritus from the manufacture of artifacts. They are similar to the specimens illustrated by Cressman (1960:86, Figs. 39a, A-F; 39b, A-B).

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 5; B, 1; G, 1; H, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0 (antler not preserved)
   I: 0 (antler not preserved)
 und.: 0 [232]

   
  


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LAST REVISED: 27 OCT 2018