Approximate location of 45KT28 beneath the Wanapum Reservoir.
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45KT28 ~ Gallery of Excavation Photos


The following photos were taken, primarily by Charles G. Nelson, during the excavation of 45KT28. The width of each image is 640 px, though most are displayed at a width of 390 px. To see the larger image, right click and select "view image".

A page from the notebook of Walter Barke that maps the House Pit 1 depression. The grid is in five foot squares. The larger numbers are elevations calculated from the nearest benchmark (see Fig. 4).


Table of Contents
Figures & Tables
Cultural Record
 Vantage Phase
 Cold Springs
 Frenchman Spring
Quilomene Bar
 Cayuse Phase
  Cayuse I
  Cayuse II
  Cayuse III
Models for

Stone Artifacts
  Flaked Stone
  Ground Stone
Bone/Antler Tools
Shell Artifacts
Metal Artifacts
Raw Materials
References Cited


Witness sections at House Pit 1. The notch in the cut bank near the start of the trench marks the L2 grid line in the map above. Collectors had enlarged Barke's excavation after he finished, so we had to do quite a bit of digging to verify the stratigraphy and other excavation details.


Witness section at House Pit 12. Spring, 1960.


The House Pit 15 excavation at low water.


The House Pit 15 excavation at high water.


First sun. Looking south at C. M. Nelson standing in the House Pit 15 excavation. The VW Microbus marks the location of our camp. Spring, 1961.






House Pit 15 excavated to the base of Component VIIH. The deadman used to anchor Booth's barge is still in place (see Ranching at 45KT28). Fall, 1958.



Looking west. The HP15 excavation the following year. The deadman, sans hawser, lies at the left foreground. The shovel leans against a wall that has been "explored" by collectors in the intervening period. The wall on the left has been undercut by the same activity. Spring, 1959.



Looking south. Excavation beneath Component VIIH down to the floor of Component VIIC. A number of the decorated pins (Fig. 83) came from the VIIC floor at the south end of the trench. Spring, 1959.



Night excavation in the VIIB/VIIF complex. Left to right, Alan Wood, David Rice, Kay Nelson, and C M Nelson. Spring, 1960.



Looking north. Night flash showing stratigraphic relationships among Cultural Components VIIA, VIIB, and VIIF. The outer wall of VIIB is just to the left of the "B" and extends upward until it is truncated by the floor of VIIF. The grayer areas at the top of the profile and on the side walls is the dried surface, the darker surface beneath freshly troweled. The three small blotches just to the left of the tape are bits of uncleaned surface.




Looking north (see Fig. 5). The lower portion passes roughly through the center of VIIB. The bench at the left is a portion of the bench surrounding the inner floor of VIIB. The intermittent, horizontal stain about a foot below the level line marks the floor of VIIF, which truncates the fill above the VIIB floor. Notice that the early fill above the VIIF floor are centered in about the same place as those above the VIIB floor, suggesting that VIIF cleaned out and slightly expanded the depression left by the VIIB house. However, the 1948 flood silts fill a depression which is centered far to the right (east) of the earlier depressions. There is no structural evidence of a newer house to accompany this depression, which suggests that the depression left by the VIIF house was filled on it's south and west sides by sediments dumped there when the pit housing the VIIH house was excavated.



Looking north. The position of soil samples taken from the profile in the image immediately above. Spring, 1961.



Looking northeast at Component VIIA from 10L1 to 10R1. Spring, 1960.



Unearthing a rock alignment within VIIA. Left to right, Kay Nelson, C M Nelson, and Alan Wood. Spring, 1960.



Looking west (see Fig. 5) at the profile along the CL line between 11CL and 12CL. VIIA is broken on the right by the wall of VIIB. The lighter colored sediments below VIIA contain remains from CCIV, the Quilomene Bar Phase component.



Looking southeast at the excavation in the CCVI horizons. The water is rising and we will soon be flooded out. Quilomene Bar Phase.



Looking west at the section beneath VIIA and the CCVI horizons. The dark horizon just visible at the base is CCIV. Quilomene Bar Phase overlying Frenchman Springs Phase.



A closer look at the sounding imaged above showing IV more clearly. CCV lies in the sand directly above the dark stain.



Looking north-northeast beneath VIIB at C M Nelson identifying the upper boundary of CCV.



Looking east at CCI and CCII where they are draped over an early distributary channel of Sunset Creek. Vantage Phase. Spring, 1962.