45KT28/97. Steatite pendant, Form 2, probably made from a pipe bowl fragment. Cultural Component VIIIH, Cayuse III Subphase.
 

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[197] GROUND STONE TOOLS


Ground Adzes

   Ground Adzes (Fig. 71). Six ground adzes of serpentine and nephrite were recovered; five from Subcomponent VI1H, and one from VII-I. All possess bifacially ground bits, and three of the specimens from VI1H have obviously been used. The largest two specimens still possess side grooves from the manufacturing process. They measure 18.7 x 4.7 x 2.0 cm., and 11.4 x 4.8 x 1.9 cm. The remaining specimens measure 7.6 x 4.1 x 0.9 cm., 5.6 x 4.8 x 0.7 cm., 4.0 x 2.0 x 0.8 cm., and 7.9 x 4.5 x 1.5 cm.
   In addition a flake probably detached from the edge of an adze was found in the slough along the river bank and derives from Cayuse Phase sediments (see below).

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 5; I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 1

  Comparable specimens.
   Butler 1962: Fig. 4, e
   Collier et al., 1942: Plate XV. a-d
   Osborne 1957: Plate 19b, 1, 5
   Osborne, Bryan, & Crabtree 1961; Pl 43b
 


FLAKE RELEASE SURFACE


DORSAL FLAKE SURFACE


GRINDING SCRATCHES ON DORSAL SURFACE

45KT28/4814. Flake of jade, probably detached from the edge of an adze. Bank slough. Cayuse Phase. Scale = 1 cm.

 

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Conventions
Abstract
Table of Contents
Letters
Figures & Tables
Acknowledgements
Introduction
Definitions
Setting
Cultural Record
 Introduction
 Vantage Phase
 Cold Springs
 Frenchman Spring
 
Quilomene Bar
 Cayuse Phase
  Characteristics
  Age
  Ethnography
  Salishan
  Stratigraphy
  Cayuse I
  Cayuse II
  Cayuse III
  Discussion
Summation
Models for
  Prehistory

Typology
Stone Artifacts
  Flaked Stone
  Percussion
  Ground Stone
Bone/Antler Tools
Shell Artifacts
Metal Artifacts
Raw Materials
Methodology
Rockshelters
References Cited


Abrasives

   Abrasives. A single sandstone abrasive was recovered from Subcomponent VIIB. It measures 11.5 x 10.5 x 1.2 cm., and shows signs of use on both sides. That this was the only implement of abrasion recovered suggests that ground stone and bone implements were polished with sand and wood, sand and hides, or some other method.




Pipes

Pipes (Fig. 72). Three complete and two fragmentary pipes were recovered in the excavations. Three derive from Subcomponent VIIH; one from Subcomponent VIIL; and one that postdates VIIG. In addition, three pipe fragments were recovered which had been reworked into beads and pendants (Fig. 74, p. s-t). One of these, found in VIIH, definitely derives from a tubular pipe; the others are from VIIH and VIIA, respectively. [197/198]

   One of the specimens from VIIH is an elbow pipe of alabaster-like material which measures 8.2 cam. in length and 3.8 cm. in height (Fig. 72, c). The bowl is 1.95 cm. in diameter, and the stem tapers from 1.6 cm. in diameter at its intersection with the bowl to 1.5 cm. at its terminus. The bowl has turned from yellow to brown through extensive use, and indentations at the end of the stem indicate that the pipe was held in the teeth while being smoked. The fragmentary bowl of another elbow pipe was also recovered from VIIH. Of basalt, it is 1.95 cm. in diameter.

   The third specimen from VIIH resembles what Ray has termed the disc bowl pipe, a form found among at least seven tribes in the Plateau, including the Klikitat, Kittitas, Wenatchee, Sanpoil, and Coeur d'Alene (Ray 1942:188). Archaeological specimens have been reported from Yakima Valley (Smith 1910: Figs. 107, 109). This specimen has been carved into the forebody of a fish complete with eyes. mouth, gill slits, ribs, and stylized back. bone (Fig. 72, b). Red ochre has been placed along the backbone and in the gill slits and eyes, graphite at the comers of the mouth and in the first rib in back of each gill dit. The specimen measures 6.1 x 3.4 x 2.5 cm. and is of an unidentified igneous rock.

   The specimen from VIIL, directly overlying VIIH, appears to be the bowl of a composite elbow pipe (Fig. 72, a). It is 1.5 cm. in height, and tapers from 1.1 cm. in diameter at the top of the bowl to 0.8 cm. at the bottom, where there is a small flange to accommodate attachment to a pipestem. A nearly identical specimen is reported by Emory Strong (1960:Fig. 3).

   The specimen from the fill above VIIG is a rim shard which has been cut and broken, perhaps in the process of making beads or pendants of the fragments of a pipe.


This tubular pipe was found by Ed Stevens while digging on the beach upstream from House Pit 15. It measures 4.5" long and .75" in diameter. It was photographed at the site at the time it was found.



Shaft Smoothers

Shaft Smoothers. (Fig. 73). Four sandstone shatters were recovered, one from the beach in front of the site and one each from Subcomponents VIIB, VIIH, and VII-I. Each is rectangular in outline and cross section and was presumably one of a matched pair. Only one is complete, measuring 5.5 x 3.5 x 2.7 cm. A larger, fragmentary specimen measures *9.0 x 3.4 x 2.3 cm.

   Similar shafters have been reported for the Tenino, Umatilla, Kalispel (Ray 1942:150), and for the Okanagon and Coeur d'Alene (Teit 1930:42, 218).



Ground Slate Point

Buz Tarbox found this ground slate point while digging in the beach upstream from House Pit 15. Length: 42 mm. 1:1 sketch made on site at the time of the find.


Beads and Pendants of Stone.

Beads and Pendants of Stone. (Fig. 74). Forty-four objects definitely identifiable as ground stone beads or pendants were recovered from Cultural Components V and VII. Thirty-nine of these, it should be noted, were recovered from Subcomponent VIIH.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; H, 39
 VI: 0
  V: 3
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

   
  


Style 1 Disc Beads (Fig. 74, a-i)

   Number of Specimens. 23

   Material. Eight are basalt, four lignite, two serpentine, one slate, one sandstone, and six of unidentified materials. [198/199]

   Measurements and description. As the materials listed above may suggest, these specimens do not represent a narrow technological tradition. Twenty-one have rectangular cross sections, one (from VIIA) a diamond-shaped cross section, and one bulging sides. The last seems to represent a type of bead common at the Congdon site, which is located near The Dalles (Weld, 1959:26, round-edged beads). Three of the beads, including the one from VIIA, have tubular perforations, two are conically drilled from one side only, and 18 are biconically drilled. These resemble Weld's flat-edges type of bead common at the Congdon site and characteristic of Indian Well II (1959:25.26). The edges of two beads are incised with diagonal lines, while the edge of another is incised with vertical lines and an encircling groove.

   These disc beads range in diameter from 0.7 to 1.55 cm. The distribution between these figures is continuous and without modes.

   Technique of manufacture. Aside from the presence of both conical and tubular perforation, no specific comments can be made about the process of manufacture.

   Comments. The diversity of these specimens, all but one of which derives from Subcomponent VIIH, suggests that many sources are represented through trade.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; H, 22
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Weld 1959: Fig. 1

This large disc bead was found by Tom Huber while digging on the beach upstream from House Pit 15. It measures approximately 20 mm. in diameter. It was photographed at the site at the time it was found.



Style 2 Graphite Beads and Pendants (Figs. 74, j-m; 14, r-t)

   Number of Specimens. 8

   Material. Graphite.

   Measurements and description. These specimens are of irregular size and shape. Those from Cultural Component V are the largest and have been perforated in the edges rather than the bead faces. All perforations are biconical.

   These specimens range in length from 1.0 to 2.6 cm., and in width from 0.8 to 1.5 cm. Six of the eight are complete.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are raw pieces of graphite which have been biconically drilled.

   Comments. Scattered reports of graphite in association with archaeological remains (Swanson 1958:166; Nelson 1962b, 31A) and the use of graphite in the Frenchman Springs Phase at 45KT28 would seem to warrant the tentative designation of a style. Many possible source areas for graphite exist and have been tabulated by C. G. Nelson (1959), who indicates that the major concentration of such sources lies in the northern Plateau and adjacent Cascade Mountains. [199-200]

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 5
 VI: 0
  V: 3
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Style 3 Tabular Slate Pendants with Convex Edges (Fig. 74, n)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Slate.

   Measurements and description. These specimens are flat, thin, tabular beads with convex edges and straight tops and bottoms. Each is biconically perforated at one end. Cross sections are rectangular, and the workmanship is fine. These specimens measure 3.0 x 0.9 x 0.3 cm., and 2.35 x 1.0 x 0.3 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding and biconical perforation.

   Comments. Since identical specimens have been reported from the Yakima Valley (Smith, 1910), the classification of style is tentatively advanced.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Smith 1910: Fig. 81


Form 1 Tubular Stone Beads (Fig. 74, o)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. One is of steatite, the other of basalt.

   Measurements and description. The steatite specimen is larger, measuring 1.4 x 0.9 x 0.9 cm. It is tubular, and the perforation is also tubular. It is possible that it is a reworked pipe stem. The basalt specimen has been manufactured by perforating a small pebble with a tubular hole. It measures 0.8 x 0.6 x 0.4 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding and tubular drilling.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [200/201]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 2 Miscellaneous Rectangular Pendants (Fig. 74, q-w)

   Number of Specimens. 8

   Material. Three are steatite, two are slate, one is basalt, and two are of unidentified materials.

   Measurements and description. These specimens, which vary a great deal in size and shape, may be seen in Figure 74 (q-w), where they arc accompanied with pertinent data. Figure 74, r, closely resembles a pendant recovered from the Congdon site, near The Dalles (Weld 1959:34, yy).

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding and biconically drilling.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; H, 7
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

Comparable specimens.
   None.
 
45KT28/2086. Scraper, Type 2D, Component VIIA, Cayuse I Subphase.
Fig. 74,s. Seatite pendent made from a pipe bowl fragment. VIIH.

     

   These three specimens were found by Buz Tarbox digging on the beach just upstream from House Pit 15. Left: slate, 50 mm long; Middle: reworked pipe bowl fragment of steatite, 46 mm long; Right: slate, 35 mm long. Sketches made on site when items were found. Also found at the same time were three dentalium beads, two undecorated and one incised.




Form 3 Reworked Tubular Pipe Fragment (Fig. 74, p)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Unknown.

   Measurements and description. This specimen appears to be the base, or flange, of a tubular pipe which has been reworked into a bead. It measures 1.0 x 1.5 x 1.5 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. Grinding and drilling.

   Comments. None.

  

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Pieces of Ground and Drilled Steatite (Fig. 14, o). Two small fragments of ground and drilled steatite were recovered, one each from Cultural Components IV and V. Because of their fragmentary condition, no specific function may be assigned to them.

 

   Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 0
  V: 1
 IV: 1
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

   
  


Incised Slate Tablet

Incised Slate Tablet (Fig. 75). The fragment of a thick, diagonally hatched, slate tablet was recovered along the river bank in slough deriving from Cultural Component VII. It measures *6.5 x *4.6 x 2.1 cm. [201/202]



Ground Basalt Tablet

Ground Basalt Tablet. A naturally shaped, rectangular basalt tablet, extensively ground on one edge and a portion of one surface, was recovered from Subcomponent VIIA. It measures 9.0 x 5.6 x 3.0 cm.



Sandstone Balls

Sandstone Balls (Fig. 74, x-y). Five round sandstone balls were recovered from Subcomponent VIIH. Evidently manufactured by pecking and abrading the coarse sandstone from which they are made, these specimens vary from 1.5 to 2.5 cm. in diameter. The function of these objects is not known.



Ground Disc Fragment

Ground Disc Fragment (Fig. 74, z). The rim fragment of a naturally circular concretion which had been thinned and polished through grinding was recovered in midden postdating Subcomponent VIIA. If complete, this specimen would have measured approximately 5.6 cm. in diameter and 0.7 cm. in thickness.



Ground Basalt Object Fragment

Ground Basalt Object Fragment (Fig. 74, aa). The heat-spalled fragment of an unidentified basalt object was recovered from Subcomponent VIIG. Possessing four ground facets, it resembles the bit of an adze, though it is much too thick to have been used for that purpose. It measures *1.6 x *1.5 x *1.0 cm.



Ocher Palettes

   Two ocher palettes were recovered. One consists of a small, flat river cobble which is stained and ground on one surface. Deriving from Subcomponent VIIA. it measures 9.9 x 6.0 x 2.0 cm. The other is a large, flat, rectangular slab of basalt which has been ground and stained on its largest surface. It measures 15.1 x 17.8 x 9.0 cm., and derives from Cultural Component VII.


Ocher

   Eight pieces of yellow ocher and 25 pieces of red ocher were recovered from Cultural Component VII. One specimen, from VIIC. displays a ground facet; the rest are unaltered.

   The use of body, facial, protective, and decorative pigment was evidently universal in the Plateau during the ethnographic period (Ray 1942:165-66, 172). Some groups are also said to have used flat stone palettes for grinding ocher (Ray 1942:143), and Teit (1930:43, 218) indicates that ocher formed an important item of trade both within the Plateau and between the Plains and the Plateau.

 

   Distribution of Yellow Ocher.
VII: B, 1; F. 1; H, 4; undesignated, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [202/203]

   
  
 

   Distribution of Red Ocher.
VII: A, 4; B, 2; C, 3; D, 8; H, 2; I, 1; undesignated, 5
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

   
  

   Sample color swatches from larger pieces of ochre from 45KT28. These are all from unprepared ochre, in most cases pieces of limonite.



Diatomaceous Earth

Diatomaceous Earth. Two pieces of diatomaceous earth were recovered. One postdates Subcomponent VIIG; the other is disputed between Subcomponents VIIC and VIIH.

   The use of white pigment, for which diatomaceous earth might serve as a base, has been reported for the Coeur d'Alene, the Thompson, and the Okanagon (Teit 1930:43, 218). [203]

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LAST REVISED: 21 JLY 2019