45KT28 oblique view.

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Cover from the original site report, 45KT28-3166 VIIB CAYUSE I SUBPHASE.

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Table of Contents
Figures & Tables
Cultural Record
 Vantage Phase
 Cold Springs
 Frenchman Spring
Quilomene Bar
 Cayuse Phase
  Cayuse I
  Cayuse II
  Cayuse III
Models for

Stone Artifacts
  Flaked Stone
  Ground Stone
Bone/Antler Tools
Shell Artifacts
Metal Artifacts
Raw Materials
References Cited


The Wanapum Dam reservoir extends from a point four miles south of Vantage to Rock Island Dam, just south of Wenatchee, Washington. The Sunset Creek site, formally designated 45KT28, is located eight miles south of Trinidad on the west bank of the Columbia River, T. 19 N., R. 22 E., Sec. 12, Kittatas County, Washington. Occupying an area near the north end of Quilomene Bar,* this site is situated south of Lodged Pole Rapids and directly across the Columbia River from the Pot Holes, through which the overflow from the Quincy Basin irrigation system presently flows.


In 1956 four coinciding circumstances led the Washington Archaeological Society to conduct a survey of both banks of the Columbia River between Vantage and Trinidad (see Fig. 1). First the society had been conducting excavations at the Hermit's, a site located a few miles downstream from Vantage (see Massey and Nelson 1958). Thus there existed a developing curiosity in the archaeological resources of the area. Second, there was growing concern over the impending construction of Priest Rapids and Wanapum dams and the potentially important sites which they would inundate. Third, Earl Swanson's (1956) doctoral thesis introduced new ideas about the area's prehistory and served as an impetus for further research. And fourth, Swanson's (1956; 1958) work at Schaake Village, slightly north of Vantage, had stimulated an interest in structural house remains of which little was known at the time. Thus the 1956 survey had as its object locating a site which would be inundated by Wanapum Dam, was areally extensive with a deep surface deposit of midden, and displayed evidence of extensive house building.

The northern end of Quilomene Bar offered such a site, and preliminary testing was conducted in the fall of 1957. ...

Three coinciding factors led to the particular selection of 45KT28 for testing. First, Shiner (1951b), who performed the survey that led to the salvage contract for the Wanapum reservoir, did not recommend that 45KT28 be tested or excavated. This meant that the Washington Archaeological Society would be contributing an otherwise unavailable perspective to the overall salvage effort. Second, WAS member Ted Weld had already privately excavated an entire pit house (Component VII-I) at 45KT28. The contents of the house suggested strong ties to the Dalles region in the late prehistoric period, a theme of some interest at the time. Third, Walter Barke, a collector from Wenatchee, had tested another house pit (Component VII-G) and made his collection and notes available for analysis. Initial testing of the site (Component VII-H) confirmed a rich late prehistoric occupation and led to thee years of extensive excavation in Component VII.

... This demonstrated the high potential of the site and seven- to ten-day expeditions were sponsored each spring and fall from that time until the completion of Wanapum Dam in 1963. Between 1957 and 1960 the extensive surface midden at the site was explored, special emphasis being given to determining the nature of house structures. Then in the fall of 1960 a whole series of early components were unearthed below the main deposits at the site. The next two years were spent in excavating these early deposits, which eventually yielded approximately 650 artifacts.


By the time the preparation of this report began seven cultural components had been defined which, it appeared, would provide a nearly complete cultural sequence dating back to 4000 or 6000 B.C. Moreover, the most recent component had yielded 3,950 artifacts, many of which were in association with a stratified sequence of three house types. The problem thus shifted from one of salvage archaeology to the integration of an important site within a still-emerging picture of Plateau prehistory.


Such an integrative effort poses special problems, for it makes the site report serve two ends: (1) the minute description of large quantities of primary field data, and (2) the comparative analysis and integration of this data on a broad regional basis. In order to accomplish these two functions this report has been divided into five parts and three appendices. Part I is the introduction. Part II defines areal and temporal terms such as phase, component, subcomponent, Upper Columbia Region, Vantage locale, and the like. Part III relates the site to the Plateau and discusses general features of climate, ecology, physiography, and ethnography. Part IV describes site's archaeology, organizing it in terms of historical phases; it is thus both descriptive and comparative in nature. Part V is a general essay about Plateau prehistory. Appendix A describes the material culture in detail. Appendix B deals with field and laboratory methodology. Appendix C, by Carolyn Osborne, describes a collection of perishables from rockshelters around Quilomeme Bar. A more detailed idea of the organization of the report may be gained by consulting the table [2] of contents. The purposes and organization of each section and major subsection of the report are also set forth in introductory statements. [2]

*Quilomene Bar has never before received a formal title, although it has been known by numerous names over the past 100 years. Some time in the latter part of the nineteenth century it was purchased or homesteaded by a man named Collins. Later he sold the property to a man by the name of Booth, who built a ranch in its north-central section. In the meantime a man by the name of Osborn had settled a ranch near the mouth of Brushy Creek, a tributary of Quilomene Creek which empties into the Columbia at the south end of the bar. As a result the bar is presently known as Booth Bar, Osborn Bar, Collins Bar, and Quilomene Bar, while some prefer to call the south half Osborn Bar and the north half Booth Bar. The situation is further complicated by the use of the term "The Quilomene" to refer to an area around the mouth of Quilomene Creek and adjacent to Quilomene Rapids.
  The name Quilomene Bar has been settled on for two reasons. First, Clarence Scammon, a resident in the area who is familiar with local history, informs me that Quilomene was the name originally applied to it. Second, the name Quilomene relates to the established terminology for Quilomene Creek and Quilomene Rapids. Back