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By Charles M. Nelson

Reprinted from The Washington Archaeologist, Vol. 7, No. 4, April, 1962, pp. 2-41.

Abstract: Although 45SN100, a stratified site in the eastern foothills of the Puget Sound Basin, Washington, is well known for the perishable materials that it has produced, little work has been done toward describing the other aspects of its material culture. This article is devoted to describing the stone artifacts from that site. These include abrasives, adzes, hammer stones, core scrapers, end and side scrapers, gravers, drills, large corner notched points, contracting stemmed points, knives, and micro blades. It was found that the chipped stone artifacts from SN100 are particularly important because they embody influences derived both from the Plateau of inland Washington and the Fraser River delta, and demonstrate the existence of a well-developed system of aboriginal interchange in prehistoric times.

The artifacts which first made 45SN100 stand out as a unique and invaluable site, consisted of a variety of perishable items. Including net-weights, fishhooks, basketry, and a possible fish weir fragment, the bulk of these materials has already been described in this journal. Though these perishables are unique in the archaeological record, the large and varied assemblage of stone artifacts from that site has proved no less astounding. Represented in it are several kinds of artifacts previously unknown from the area. These include micro blades, large corner-notched projectile points, and numerous cobble choppers.

The sample of stone artifacts thus far recorded numbers 431 pieces, or 63% of the total catalogue. In addition to this, quantities of detritus have been recovered, and unworked specimens of stone including graphite, realgar, quartz crystal, and ochre entered into the catalogue. This group, which will be discussed in the pages following under the heading "Materials," comprises 6% of the total assemblage. Of the remainder, 5% is composed of bones (a rare "perishable" at the site), and about 26% are perishable articles.

In terms of the amount of time spent in excavation (two field seasons), the number of artifacts recovered is quite low. At 45SN100, however, it is difficult to judge productivity in terms of time, since the vast quantities necessitate especially slow work. In fact, during these two field seasons, less than 250 cubic feet of midden were removed. This means that the stone artifact yield alone was around two per cubic foot, or fifty per a six-inch level in a five-foot square.

Many problems were encountered in reducing the stone artifacts to types, or more properly speaking, artifact groupings, since the primary objective of this paper is to describe artifacts rather than to delineate types. The simplest description, of course, implies 'type' and should be rendered in a manner that will allow the discernment of types where they exist. Such a rendering is, however, quite difficult since archaeologists disagree as to what a type should be and how such a general definition should be applied in assigning particular types.

The first duty of any archaeologist is to describe, accurately and unbiasedly, all the materials, which he finds. It is primarily for this reason that a system of description has been chosen which ignores typology, as such, and treats artifacts, both statistically and physically, as a series of interlocking, telescopic groups. This system may be visualized as a systematic breakdown of the general into the specific, in which the largest, most general group consists of all the artifacts being considered. In the telescopic line of description this most basic unit is then divided into a few large, rudimentary groups; i.e., all cobble implements, all chipped stone implements, all bone and antler artifacts. These groups will vary according to the range of materials to be analyzed. In the present problem the basic unit is composed of the stone artifacts from SN100, and the groups immediately derived from this are nine in number. Four of these nine groups have been further subdivided, and, in the case of two of the groups, these subdivisions further broken down into successive levels or plateaus. In this manner a pyramid of groups is formed, the base of which is composed of relatively small groups of artifacts alike in almost every detail. As we climb the steps of the pyramid these finite groups merge, becoming ever more general, until, at length, at the top of the pyramid, they have formed one group. This pyramid, like structure of classification, as applied to the stone artifacts from SN100, may be seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Diagram of the breakdown of the stone artifacts from 45SN100. For a summation of the numerical and statistical information which accompanies this system, see Table 1.

The advantages of this system are three. First all of the artifacts belong to more than one group and therefore possess significance at several points of reference. Second, it integrates all the artifacts into one system. This serves to demonstrate, with the descriptive method itself, how closely artifacts are related to one another. Third, in providing an indiscriminating description of artifacts in a series of interlocking groups, it allows the discernment of culture on several levels. Notably it allows us to better distinguish; a) the work of the individual craftsman, b) isolated innovations standardized in a few or, perhaps, in only one community, c) traits which are found throughout a culture, d) traits which are common to related cultures, and finally e) complexes of related or inter-related traits on any one of the aforementioned levels.

An expansion of this discussion would reveal other advantages inherent in this system. However, since this paper is only a preliminary description of but a fragment of the material culture of SN100, and since, moreover, it is not designed to discuss, at length, the significance of that portion of the material culture, further erudition on method is not germane to the article and shall, therefore, be waived.

The following description of stone artifacts from SN100 treats each of the nine major divisions and all their subdivisions in numerical order. This is accomplished within the structure of an outline, which allows us to reduce the artifacts' pyramid grouping into an ordered or linear description. Like any other outline this one is composed of numerals and letters, for each of which there is a descriptive and statistical entry. The pyramid, thus in outline form, may be seen in Table I, which summarizes the numerical and statistical breakdown of the artifacts.

In this table the interlocking groups of stone artifacts are arranged in outline form. Percentages are calculated for membership at each level of the hierarchy.

The descriptive portion of the outline may be seen below. It, too, arranged in outline form and contains a discussion of each class of artifacts. Like the general system itself, it proceeds from the general to the specific. Thus the characteristics of each primary group are first described. These characteristics are general and apply equally to all the secondary classes and sub_classes, which go to make up the primary group. Secondary classes and their divisions are, of course, distinct, deriving their identity from more specific attributes. This situation finds many analogies in the natural world. For instance, when we consider mammals, we find a general class of animals distinct from other kinds of creatures but itself composed of many orders, families, genera, and species. So too all chipped stone artifacts, for example, though possessing common attributes, are of many varieties and may therefore be divided into many subclasses.

Each description will contain basic elements, some of which should be explained before proceeding. First, though certain important statistics will be quoted in the discussion of each group, a complete set of percentages may be found only in Table I. Second, extreme and average measurements will be given for all finite groups, that is, groups which stand in themselves as invisible wholes. Third, all extreme and average measurements are based on dimensional completeness of the artifact. In other words, if a projectile point were minus its tip, then only its width and thickness would be figured into any averages or extreme measurements. And fourth, when the indivisible group consists of one artifact only, then its measurements will be given; and if any of these are inaccurate because the artifact is fragmentary, then they will be starred.


Twelve abrasive stone fragments have been recovered from the excavations at 45SN100. The several varieties represented are all of sandstone. Due to soil conditions seven have been badly weathered; five so badly that actual signs of use are no longer present, though shape, size, and contour leave little doubt as to their original use. In addition to these badly weathered specimens, there are several pieces of corroded sandstone residing in the detritus collection. Of the remaining five artifacts in this group, two are fragments of massive abrasives which were manufactured from thick slabs of extremely tough, fine-grained sandstone; two are of thin slabs of similar material; and one is actually a small, flat, oblong, river cobble which has been utilized on both its surfaces.

Since these specimens are all incomplete, extreme and average measurements will not be given.

Number of specimens 12 Percent of stone artifacts 2.73


This group consists of one chisel, one adze, and one sawn piece of serpentine. it represents .70% of all the stone artifacts.

IIA. Small, narrow, nephrite chisel. This piece shows no signs of having been blocked out by sawing. It is well made, having an ovate cross section and parallel sides. It is thickest at the juncture of its body and the bi-facial facets, which form its bit, and becomes gradually thinner as its base is approached. This specimen shows definite signs of use at the bit. Though no signs of a haft were noted in the excavation, this piece's size, shape, and use-scars all suggest that it was hafted at least while functioning as a chisel.

Length 5.5 cm. Number of specimens 1
Width 0.7 cm. Per cent of Group 11 33.33
Thickness 0.6 cm.

IIB. The base of a carefully made adze, this piece was manufactured from a dark, serpen-tine-like stone. It is nicely finished, possessing a square, slightly tapered base, and showing slight signs of the original sawing; although this specimen has been broken in the middle, its base does not show any signs of use. This would seem to indicate that it was probably hafted, though no haft has yet been recovered from the site. It might also be noted that if such hafts were of bone or antler, they would probably have been decomposed by the acid soil unless thoroughly calcined.

Length 4.4 cm. Number of specimens 1
Width 3.3 cm. Percent of Group 11 33.33
Thickness 1.3 cm.

IIC. Sawn and ground serpentine. Since a portion of this specimen has been ground after it’s sawing had already occurred, it is possible that it is an adze in the making. It also shows us that adzes were being manufactured on the site. Whether nephrite and serpentine were being sawn on the site is, however, another question since the material in roughed-out form could have been traded in. In this context it should also be added that as yet no jade saws have been recovered, and that, due to soil conditions, they may not be recovered even though they might well have been used.

Length 4.5 cm.         Number of specimens 1
Width 3.7 cm.           Per cent of Group 11 33.33  
Thickness 1.4 cm.  


This specimen, manufactured out of lignite, is ovate in outline. Most of all it resembles a large cabochon. It is flat on one side, excurvate on the other, and has a facet of approximately .045 cm. ground around its periphery. On the flat side a drill hole was started but never finished, a fact, which suggests that this piece might be an unfinished pendant.

Length 3.1 cm.         Number of specimens 1
Width 2.2 cm.           Per cent of stone artifacts .23  
Thickness 0.9 cm.  


This specimen consists of a piece of rock containing a thin seam of realgar, a bright red to red-orange mineral. The surface containing the seam has been ground, evidently to procure the realgar for pigment. The nearest recorded source of this mineral occurs on the coast near La Conner, Washington. It is possible that this specimen, as well as several unworked pieces from SN100, may have come from this location. The unworked pieces of realgar will be considered again under the heading of "Materials."

Length 6.0 cm.         Number of specimens 1
Width 3.6 cm.           Per cent of stone artifacts .23  
Thickness 1.3 cm.  


Small, ovate, sandstone cobble, in one surface of which is a round, relatively deep depression. The cobble is sub-triangular in shape and fits comfortably into the palm of the hand. The depression, which has been first pecked out and then abraded, is situated in the center of one of the cobble's excurvate surfaces. It is approximately 3.4 cm. in diameter at the lip and tapers into a smooth, circular socket about 1.3 cm. in diameter. In the sane surface there are a few deep scratches near the specimen's periphery. It has been postulated that this artifact might have been the hand rest for a bow or cord drill.

Length 7.1 cm.         Number of specimens 1
Width 6.3 cm.           Per cent of stone artifacts .23  
Thickness 2.5 cm.  


Medium sized, flat cobble shallowly notched by pecking. The notches occur at the poles of the long axis of the cobble. This specimen was probably utilized as some sort of weight. No hafting or cordage was found about it, and it is much too large to have served as an ordinary net weight.

Length 8.1 cm.         Number of specimens 1
Width 7.2 cm.           Per cent of stone artifacts .23  
Thickness 3.4 cm.  


This group consists of all the cobble choppers recovered from SN100, plus all the by-products, which resulted from their manufacture. The by-products include knives, scrapers, diggers, and core-like objects. Considered as an assemblage, numbering 105 artifacts or 24.36% of the stone artifacts, this group is very significant, Not only the substantial frequency of these specimens, but also their numerous varieties and forms, lead one to the conclusion that they are the products of a long standing tradition and of considerable importance to the culture they represent.

VIIA. Choppers unifacially flaked and manufactured from a whole cobble. This group has been subdivided into five varieties. It numbers 23 pieces, or 21.90% of Group VII.

VIIA1. This variety consists of relatively large cobble choppers. They are elongate in shape and possess a narrow bit (Fig. 2, a).

Averages Extremes
Length 14.25 cm. Length 13.5 -15.0 cm.
Width 9.2 cm. Width 9.0 - 9.4 cm.
Thickness 6.0 cm. Thickness 5.2 - 6.8 cm.
Number of specimens 2      Per cent of Group VIIA 8.70 

VIIA2. Medium sized choppers manufactured from cobbles irregular in shape through the removal of a few large spalls. The angle at the bit among these specimens tends to be only slightly acute (Fig. 2, b).

Averages             Extremes

Length 9.04 cm. Length 6.9 - 10.5 cm.

Width 8.47 cm. Width 5.7 - 11,2 cm.

Thickness 4.94 cm. Thickness 4.0 - 6.2 cm.

Number of specimens 5 Per cent of Group VIIA 21.74

Figure 2. Cobble implements.

VIIA3. Medium sized chopper manufactured from ovate cobbles through the removal of several spalls. The angle at the bit tends to be quite acute. On the whole the specimens in this group tend to be larger but thinner than those of Group VIIA2 (Fig. 2, c).

Averages             Extremes
Length l0.28 cm.   Length 8.9 -12.3 cm.
Width 8.35 cm.     Width 7.0 -11.5 cm.
Thickness 3.2 cm. Thickness 2.8 - 6.2 cm.

Number of specimens 4 Per cent of Group VIIA 17.39

VIIA4. Small choppers or scrapers manufactured from cobbles of irregular shape, by means of the removal of from three to ten flakes (Fig. 2, d).

Averages Extremes
Length 7.74 cm. Length 5.5 - 9.1 cm.
Width 6.64 cm. Width 5.5 - 7.7 cm.
Thickness 2.17 cm. Thickness 1.2 - 2.9 cm.

Number of specimens 11 Per cent of Group VIIA 47.83

VIIA5. Extremely small cobble scraper manufactured out of a jasper veined with quartz. This is the only cobble implement made from a cryptocrystalline material. It is possible, considering this piece's size and the fact that the jasper from which it was made is of very poor quality, that its shape, tough perfect for a cobble implement, is a coincidence, and that it is in reality a core.

Length 4.8 cm. Number of specimens 1

Width 3.3 cm. Per cent of Group VIIA 4.35

VIIB. Small to medium sized ovate spalls worked into unifacially flaked choppers. The spalls from which these specimens were made were evidently detritus from the manufacture of other choppers. Specifically, they would have been the first flakes, or heels, struck in the manufacture of choppers like those described in Groups VIIA and VIIE, or from the core-like objects of Group VIIF. In the manufacture of the articles in this group, flakes were struck off the scar side of the spall, leaving the original surface of the cobble unscathed. It should also be noted that these specimens differ from boulder chip knives in that they are smaller, thicker considerably altered from the original spall and frequently irregular in outline (Fig. 3, a-b).

Averages              Extremes
Length 8.04 cm.     Length 6.4 – 10.3 cm.
Width 6.77 cm.       Width 5.1 – 9.9 cm.
Thickness 2.18 cm. Thickness 1.2 - 3.0 cm.

Number of specimens 20;   Per cent of Group VII 19.05

Figure 3. Cobble implements.

VIIC. Large, rectangular spalls showing signs of considerable use along a single edge of each (Rig. 3, c).

Averages Extremes
Length 10.25 cm. Length 10.0 - 10.5 cm.
Width 6.4 cm. Width 6.3 - 6.5 cm.
Thickness 3.6 cm. Thickness 3.3 - 3.9 cm.

Number of specimens 2;   Per cent of Group VII 1.90

VIID, Small to medium sized choppers made from spalls such as have been described under Group VIlBo In this group, however, we find that the spalls utilized were larger and that, in the process of manufacture, they were broken or split in half, leaving a cobble implement roughly hemispherical in shape (Fig. 3 j, d).

Averages              Extremes
Length 8.76 cm.     Length 4.3 - 15.7 cm.
Width 7.43 cm.       Width 5.45- 10.3 cm.
Thickness 2.33 cm. Thickness O.9 - 3.8 cm.

Number of specimens 9;   Per cent of Group VII 8.57

VIIE. Bifacially flaked cobble choppers. This group numbers 6 specimens, or 3.7% of Group VII. It is interesting to note that if the total number of cobble choppers, proper, is considered, 85% are unifacially and only 15% bifacially flaked.

VIIE1. Medium to large sized choppers manufactured from cobbles irregular in shape, One is ovate, being worked all along one edge (Fig. 4, a); the others are trapezoidal in shape, the base of the trapezoid forming the worked edge. One of these specimens has also been utilized as a hammerstone (Fig. 41, b).

Averages Extremes

Length 8.7 cm. Length 6.5 - 10.2 cm.

Width 8.97 cm. Width 6.5 - 11.0 cm.

Thickness 3.8 cm. Thickness 3.3 - 4.1 cm.

Number of specimens 3 Per cent of Group VIIE 50.00

VIIE2. Choppers manufactured from small, chunky cobbles, which have been bifacially flaked so as to produce a narrow bit the angle at which is extremely acute (Fig. 4, c).

Averages Extremes

Length 6.57 cm. Length 5.1 - 7.4 cm.

Width 5.67 cm. Width 4.6 - 5.3 cm.

Thickness 4.4 cm. Thickness 4.0 - 4.7 cm.

Number of specimens 3 Per cent of Group VIIE 50.00

Figure 4. Cobble implements.

VIIF. Cores, manufactured from medium to large sized cobbles. These specimens appear to have no function other than the obtaining of spalls for the manufacture of or use as, artifacts.

This conclusion is disputable, however, since the kinds of spalls that were produced from these cores were also available as detritus from the manufacture of choppers. Moreover, only eight such flakes have been found which show any signs of work or use. This small number is opposed to hundreds of unworked spalls. Thus, that they merely served as cores seems an unreasonable conclusion unless, of course, the flakes taken from them were not altered in normal use. A similar problem has been encountered with some of the specimens of Group VIIK.

Averages Extremes
Length 8.2 cm. Length 5.7 - 11.0 cm.
Width 6.8 cm. Width 5.8 - 8.4 cm.
Thickness 5.23 cm. Thickness 4.3 - 7.2 cm.

Number of specimens 4 Per cent of Group VII 3.81

VIIG. A number of cobble implements were recovered whose shape and manner of execution suggest that they were used as diggers. All are unifacially flaked, though two display a few miscellaneous flake scars on the cobble surface itself. Two of the specimens were manufactured from large cobbles; three of the others from rather small, flat ones. Their outline is sub-triangular and in each case it is obvious that a point was desired, though never sharpened and frequently left unworked (Fig. 4, d, e).

Averages Extremes

Length 12.16 cm. Length 9.8 - 17.5 cm.

Width 6.47 cm. Width 3.0 - 8.0 cm.

Thickness 2.80 cm. Thickness 1.7 - 4.4 cm.

Number of specimens 6 Per Cent of Group VII 5.71

VIIH. Bifacially flaked knife or small digger. This specimen is small, elongate and rectangular in shape. Its tip has been broken off, and though it is difficult to place it with any particular group, it appears to be most closely aligned to the diggers (VIIG) just described (Fig. 5, a).

Length 8.5 cm. Number of specimens 1

Width 4.0 cm. Per cent of Group VII .95

Thickness 2.1 cm.

VII-I. Scraper plane made from a large, chunky spall, which was probably detritus from the manufacture of a cobble chopper. This specimen is steeply keeled and possesses an irregular scraping edge (Fig. 5, b).

Length 7.6 cm. Number of specimens 1

Width 5.5 cm. Per cent of Group VII .95

Thickness 2.1 cm.

Figure 5. Cobble implements.

VIIJ. Spalls worked or utilized as scrapers or knives. These specimens are byproducts of the manufacture of cobble tools. That they number only 12, or 11.43% of Group VII and only 2.79% of all the stone artifacts, is due to the importance of cryptocrystallines in the manufacture of scrapers knives, and projectile points.

VIIJ1. Each member of this group consists of a large, flat, more or less subrectangular spall, utilized or worked along one edge only. These specimens may have served as choppers, knives, or scrapers,

Averages Extremes
Length 7.39 cm. Length 5.2 - 8.4 cm.
Width 7.3 cm. Width 5.7 - 9.0 cm.
Thickness 1.55 cm. Thickness 1.2 - 1.8 cm.

Number of specimens 4 Per cent of Group VIIJ 33.33

VIIJ2. Medium sized spalls of irregular shape, utilized along one edge only. Nine-of these specimens may have been used as a large spoke shave.

Averages Extremes

Length 6.25 cm. Length 5.5 - 7.0 cm.

Width 5.56 cm. Width 4.4 - 7.3 cm.

Thickness 1.21 cm. Thickness 1.05- 1.4 cm.

Number of specimens 4 Per cent of Group VIIJ 33.33

VIIJ3. Medium sized, more or less sub-rectangular spalls, worked into scrapers (Fig. 5, c, d). One of these scrapers (Fig. 5) shows considerable wear along the scraping edge.

Averages Extremes

Length 5.6 cm. Length 3.7 - 7.5 cm.

Width 4.5 cm. Width 4.2 - 4.8 cm.

Thickness 1.25 cm. Thickness 1.1 - 1.4 cm.

Number of specimens 2 Per cent of Group VIIJ 16.67

VIIJ4. Small flakes each of which has been utilized along a single edge. One of these specimens possesses very fine positive and negative bulbs of percussion, which suggest that it may have been struck from a core by means of a punch. As yet no such core has been recovered.

Averages Extremes

Length 3.35 cm. Length 3.1 - 3.6 cm.

Width 3.05 cm. Width 2.9 - 3.2 cm.

Thickness 0.6 cm. Thickness 0.5 - 0.7 cm.

Number of specimens 2 Per cent of Group VIIJ 16.67

VIIK. Miscellaneous items, some of which are unidentifiable fragments; some of questionable workmanship; and some just plain nondescript. As artifacts accumulate from SN100, new groups will undoubtedly emerge from this group. At the moment, however, it is difficult to conceive of any as having a functional use (see Group VIIF, above). This group numbers 21 items, or 20.0% of Group VII.


This group is unusually small, containing only three specimens, or .70% of the total assemblage of stone artifacts from SN100. In addition to these, one chopper (group VIIE1) was also used as a hammerstone. Even so, in terms of the number of choppers produced this number seems disproportionately small.

VIIIA. Long, narrow cobble, battered at one end.

Length 19.7 cm. Number of specimens 1

Width 5.1 cm. Per cent of Group VIII 33.33

Thickness 5.0 cm.

VIIIB. Medium sized, ovate cobble, battered at each end.

Length 10.0 cm. Number of specimens 1

Width 7.2 cm. Per cent of Group VIII 33.33

Thickness 4.2 cm.

VIIIC. Fragment of long, narrow hammerstone with a triangular cross section. This specimen was battered all along one edge.

Length 7.6 cm. Number of specimens 1
Width 3.5 cm. Per cent of Group VIII 33.33
Thickness 2.1 cm.


Under this general heading all artifacts have been grouped which are either flaked or struck from prepared cores, and which are not byproducts of the manufacture of cobble implements. These include cores, scrapers, projectile points, and micro blades. This assemblage numbers 334 pieces, or 70.53% of all stone artifacts recovered from SN100. It is an exceedingly important group, and provides many interesting contrasts and comparisons between SN100, the coast and the Plateau.

IXA. Micro blades and artifacts based on blade-like flakes. These 28 pieces, which comprise 9.21% of Group IX, clearly demonstrate the existence of a highly developed, blade producing industry. Though no cores have been found, still this may be said with certainty since less than 250 cubic feet of cultural debris have been excavated.

IXA1. The ten specimens comprising this group are micro blades in the true sense of the term. They compose 35.71% of Group IXA, and have been divided into two sub-groups.

IXA1a. The micro blades in this sub-group are long, narrow, and tend to have a triangular cross section, though fine trapezoidal cross sections are not unknown. They have been executed with great care, and often display use-flakes along one edge (Fig. 6, a-e).

Averages Extremes

Length 2.15 cm. Length 0.8 - 3.3 cm.

Width 0.64 cm. Width 0.5 - 0.8 cm.

Thickness 0.11 cm. Thickness 0.1 - 0.15 cm.

Number of specimens 8 Per cent of Group IXA1 80.00

IXAlb. The two specimens, who make up this sub-group are broader than those of the last. One is complete and shallowly triangular in cross section. It measures 2.0 x 1.4 x 0.3 cm. The other is fragmentary, being incomplete both in respect to its length and width. When complete it must have possessed at least four facets and been longer and wide than its companion. Together these pieces comprise 20.00% of Group IXA1 (Fig. 6, f-g).

Figure 6. Microblades and small blade tools.

IXA2. Possible burin spalls or flakes removed in the process of trimming a micro blade core. Each of these pieces is of obsidian and more or less triangular in cross section. One is long and the other short. Neither resembles what are often termed tinklers (Fig. 6, h).

Averages Extremes
Length 2.63 cm. Length 1.95 - 3.3 cm.
Width 0.4 cm. Width 0.3 - 0.5 cm.
Thickness 0.25 cm. Thickness 0.2 - 0.3 cm.

Number of specimens 2 Per cent of Group IXA 7.14

IXA3. The artifacts in this group were manufactured from large, blade-like flakes that were evidently struck from a prepared core. Some possess a triangular, others a trapezoidal cross section. All have been worked along one edge and utilized along the other (Fig. 7, a-d).

Averages Extremes

Length 5.56 cm. Length 3.8 - 8.5 cm.

Width 1.88 cm. Width 1.2 - 1.7 cm.

Thickness 0.61 cm. Thickness 0.35 - 1.1 cm.

Number of specimens 4 Per cent of Group IXA 14.2S

IXA4. Large, flat, parallel-sided flakes, evidently struck from a prepared core with two striking platforms polar to one another. Most of the flake scars forming the anterior of these specimens originated at the opposite end of the core from which they, themselves, were struck. Their many faceted anteriors give these pieces the overall impression of having a trapezoidal cross section. Each has been worked along both its sides and the largest possesses a notch in one corner, which forms a stem or handle. These pieces, though unifacially worked, would have served as ideal knives (Fig. 7, e-f).

Averages Extremes

Length 6.5 cm. Length 5.0 - 8.0 cm.

Width 2.65 cm. Width 2.5 - 2.8 cm.

Thickness 0.45 cm. Thickness 0.4 - 0.5 cm.

Number of specimens 2 Per cent of Group IXA 7.14

Figure 7. Large blade tools.

IXA5. The specimens in this group were not struck from polyhedral cores of any nature. Nevertheless, they have been classified with the micro blade tradition because, in their manu

facture, a concerted effort seems to have been made to emulate the sort of blades described in Groups IXA3 and IXA4. All are triangular in cross section and it is possible that some were originally blades, which did not turn out too well. However, this is not very likely. All have received their blade-like shape through pressure flaking, and may be worked on one or both edges. In addition, many show signs of wear along one edge (Fig. 6, i-l).

This assemblage contains one rather unusual item (Fig. 6, j). A chisel fragment, this specimen, which is narrow and parallel sided, has been worked into an excurvate bit. It was then broken, leaving a flute like fracture originating at the bit, then rising, cresting, and quickly falling, breaking the specimen in two. The resultant object resembles a gun flint.

Averages Extremes
Length 2.63 cm. Length 1.7 - 3.5 cm.
Width 1.58 cm. Width 1.2 - 2.0 cm.
Thickness 0.42 cm. Thickness 0.4 - 0.6 cm.

Number of specimens 10 Per cent of Group IXA 35.71

IXB. Drills. This group numbers 3 items, or .99% of Group IX.

IXB1. Base of a T-shaped drill possessing a thick lenticular cross section that borders on being round.

Length 1.0 cm. Number of specimens 1

Width 1.5 cm. Per cent of Group IXB 33.33

Thickness 0.7 cm.

IXB2. Base of drill manufactured from a flake irregular in shape. This specimen has a thick lenticular cross section.

Length 1.0 cm. Number of specimens 1

Width 1.5 cm. Per Cent of Group IXB 33.33

Thickness 0.4 cm.

IXB3. This specimen has been manufactured by flaking a piece of agate into a 30-60-90 triangle, and then working the most acute angle into a drill. Two things about this specimen are interesting and should be noted. First, the shank of the drill has been beveled, giving it a cross section resembling a parallelogram. Second, this is one of the few pieces of its kind that one encounters that actually shows signs of wear. In fact, we can tell from the abrasion and use flakes that it was turned in a clockwise direction.

IXC. Gravers. This group of 12 artifacts comprises 3.95% of Group IX.

IXC1, Small generally unifacially flaked gravers, which are long and narrow. The cross sections of these specimens tend to be triangular.

Averages Extremes

Length 2.74 cm. length 2.2 - 3.7 cm.

Width 1.1 cm. Width 0.9 - 1.4 cm.

Thickness 0.56 cm. Thickness 0.4 - 0.8 cm.

Number of specimens 4 Per cent of Group IXC 33.33

IXC2. Small, flat, thin gravers manufactured from tear-drop shaped flakes.

Averages Extremes
Length 2.58 cm. Length 2.5 - 2.65 cm.
Width 0.9 cm. Width 0.7 - 1.1 cm.
Thickness 0.25 cm. Thickness 0.2 - 0.3 cm.

Number of specimens 2 Per cent of Group IXC 16.67

IXC3. Manufactured from large, heavy flakes of irregular shape, these gravers tend to be heavily keeled and triangular in cross section (Fig. 89 a).

Averages Extremes

Length 4.3 cm. Length 2.4 - 5.9 cm.

Width 1.62 cm. Width 1.3 - 2.4 cm.

Thickness 0.89 cm. Thickness 0.5 - 1.8 cm.

Number of specimens 3 Per cent of Group 41.67

IXC4. Large core-like object converted into a heavy graver or gouge. This specimen resembles a three-sided pyramid (Fig. 8, b). It measures 4.8 x 1.8 x 3.45 cm. and composes 8.33% of Group IXC.

Figure 8. Scrapers and Gravers.

IXD. This group is composed of all the side and end scrapers. It numbers 95 pieces, or 31,25% of Group IX.

IXD1. Side scrapers. Under this heading all flakes worked along a single edge have been grouped. All are unifacially flaked by means of pressure and shallowly, if at all, keeled. The worked edge is always one of the longer, and often the longest, of any individual piece in question. This group numbers 23 specimens and comprises 24.21% of Group M.

IXD1a. Side scrapers manufactured from flakes of various sizes and shapes. These specimens have straight to moderately excurvate scraping edges (Fig. 8, c, e).

Averages Extremes

Length 3.0 cm. Length 1,9 - 5,9 cm.

Width 2.48 cm. Width 1.5 - 1.2 cm.

Thickness 0.6 cm. Thickness 0.3 - 1.2 cm.

Number of specimens 19 Per cent of Group IXD1 82.61

IXD1b. Side scraper manufactured from a medium sized flake. The working edge of this piece is noticeably excurvate. It measures 3.4 x 2.4 x 0.8 cm., and comprises 4,35% of Group IXD1.

IXD1e, The two specimens that compose this sub-group are unique in that they have been notched at one end, presumably for hafting. One is complete, measuring 2.8 x 1,6 x 0.4 cm., the other is incomplete and must originally have been about twice the size of its companion. Wear and secondary flaking indicate that it saw considerable use. This group comprises 8.70% of Group IXD1.

IXD1c. The single specimen that comprises this group has been classified in this portion of the outline largely because it doesn't fit an well anywhere else. It was manufactured from a large, bulbous, parallel sided flake with a triangular cross section. Both edges were flaked unifacially. After completion it was broken perpendicular to the worked sides. Later it was utilized along this broken edge. This specimen measures 3.4 x 3.0 x 1.0 cm., and comprises 4.35% of Group IXD1.

IXD2. This group is composed of all the end scrapers recovered from SN100. It numbers 58 specimens, and accounts for 61.05% of Group IXD and 19.08% of all chipped stone artifacts.

IXD2a. Medium to large sized, chunky spalls or flake remnants, fashioned into end scrapers. These specimens have been pressure flaked and utilize the natural contour of the spall to complement their form. This group numbers 16 pieces, or 27.59% of Group IXD2.

Averages Extremes
Length 2.76 cm, Length 0.8 - 4.3 cm.
Width 2.51 cm. Width 0.5 - 3.7 cm.
Thickness 0.99 cm. Thickness 0.1 - 1.4 cm.

IXD2b. The specimens in this group were manufactured from small to medium sized spalls by means of pressure flaking. They are all worked on at least three sides and range from ovate to sub-rectangular in outline, though tending towards the former. Most are steeply keeled along the scraping edge. This group numbers 23 specimens, or 39.66% of Group IXD2 (Fig. 8, g).

Averages Extremes

Length 2.46 cm. Length 1.5 - 4.0 cm.

Width 2.16 cm. Width 1.2 - 3.5 cm.

Thickness 0.61 cm. Thickness 0.4 - 0.9 cm.

IXD2c. End scrapers manufactured from medium sized, sub-rectangular spalls by means of pressure flaking a narrow end, usually the one opposite the bulb of percussion. This group numbers 13 pieces, or 22.41% of Group IXD2 (Fig. 8, f).

Averages Extremes

Length 2.63 cm. Length 1.8 - 4.8 cm.

Width 2.0 cm. Width 1.7 - 2.5 cm.

Thickness 0.75 cm. Thickness 3.5 - 1.0 cm.

IXD2d. The two specimens that make up this group are deftly made end scrapers, possibly designed for hafting. In outline they are triangular; three dimensionally they may be described as irregular, shallow, three sided pyramids the long sides of which are each approximately twice the length of the short side, which served as the scraping edge. Strictly speaking one of these pieces is a knife since it is bifacially flaked. It resembles the other specimen in this group so closely, however, that it has been tentatively grouped with it. This group numbers 2 items, or 3.45% of Group IXD2 (Fig 8, h).

Averages Extremes
Length 4.25 cm. Length 4.0 - 4.5 cm.
Width 2.2 cm. Width 1.9 - 2.5 cm.
Thickness 0.95 cm. Thickness 0.7 - 1.2 cm.

IXD2e. Each of the two specimens that comprise this class possesses roughly parallel, well worked edges in addition to the keeled end characteristics of end scrapers. The method of manufacture approximates that of the blade-like scrapers in Group IXA5. Use scars on each of these pieces suggest that they were used as both side and end scrapers. This group numbers 2 specimens, and comprises 3.45% of Group IXD2.

Averages Extremes

Length 4.4 cm. Length 4.0 - 4.8 cm.

Width 2.35 cm. Width 1.9 - 2.8 cm.

Thickness 0.5 cm. Thickness 0.3 - 0.7 cm.

IXD2f. This group is composed of two small end scrapers that were apparently manufactured for hafting. One has a small, thick stem directly opposite the scraping edge; the other has a pointed base that is formed to a large extent by the natural shape of the flake. This group of 2 artifacts accounts for 3.45% of Group IXD2.

Averages Extremes

Length 2.35 cm. Length 2.2 - 2.5 cm.

Width 1.5S cm. Width 1.0 - 2.0 cm.

Thickness 0.6 cm. Thickness 0.4 - 0.8 cm.

IXD3. This group is composed of fragments of end or side scrapers too incomplete for further identification. It numbers 8 specimens, or 8.42% of Group IXD.

IXD4. Fragments of unifacially flaked objects too incomplete for further identification. This group numbers 6 specimens, or 6.32% of Group IXD.

IXE. This group is composed of all identifiable cores and core fragments which either show signs of work or use, or could have been utilized as tools in their present form. It numbers 18 specimens, or 5.92% of Group IX.

IXEI. The specimen that comprises this group is a small, cube-shaped core of, as percussion manufactured cores go, exquisite workmanship. Although this piece shows no signs of utilization, its exceedingly symmetrical shape suggests that it had son definite use. It measures 4.2 x 4.1 x 3.45 cm., and accounts for 5.56% of Group IXE.

IXE2. Two small cores possibly utilized as scrapers. These specimens were manufactured by means of percussion and are multi-faced. The comprise 11.11% of Group IXE.

Averages                Extremes

Length 3.3 cm.         Length 3.2 - 3.4 cm.
Width 2.4 cm.           Width 2.0 - 2.8 cm.
Thickness 1.08 cm.   Thickness 1.0 - 1.15 cm.

IXE3. Two large cores reworked into large scrapers that may have been used as scraper planes. This group numbers 2 items, or 11.11% of Group IXE.

Averages Extremes
Length 3.25 cm. Length 2.5 - 4.0 cm.
Width 5.25 cm. Width 5.2 - 5.3 cm.
Thickness 2.15 cm. Thickness 2.0 - 3.0 cm.

IXE4. Unaltered core fragments which may have served as knives or scrapers. These pieces are products of percussion and have bifacially flaked edges. This group numbers 5 specimens, or 21.78% of Group IXE.

Averages Extremes Length 3.81 cm. Length 2.9 - 5.3 cm. Width 3.17 cm. Width 2.7 - 3.8 cm. Thickness 1.28 cm. Thickness 0.9 - 1.7 cm.

IXE5. Unaltered, unifacially flaked core fragments of irregular shape. These pieces may have been utilized as scrapers or knives. This group numbers 8 items, or 44.44% of Group IXE.

Averages Extremes Length 4.19 cm. Length 1.9 - 5.7 cm. Width 2.42 cm. Width 1.7 - 3.0 cm. Thickness 1.28 cm. Thickness 0.9 - 2.0 cm.

IXF. This group consists of all flakes that were worked through utilization only. It numbers 83 specimens, or 27.31% of Group IX.

IXF1. Large, sub-rectangular spalls utilized along a single edge. These pieces appear to have been used as knives. There are seven specimens in this group, which comprises 8.43% of Group IXF.

Averages Extremes Length 6.24 cm. Length 3.6 - 12.3 cm. Width 3.85 cm. Width 2.5 - 8.35 cm. Thickness 1.29 cm. Thickness 1.0 - 1.9 cm.

IXF2. This group is composed of sturdy, medium sized flakes that are irregular in shape and have been utilized along one or more of their edges. This group numbers 10 items, or 12.05% of Group IXF.

Averages Extremes Length 3.15 cm. Length 2.5 - 4.0 cm. Width 2.52 cm. Width 1.8 - 3.6 cm. Thickness 0.72 cm. Thickness 0.5 - 1.0 cm.

IXF3. Small flakes irregular in shape and generally utilized along one edge only. The 10 specimens that comprise this group account for 12.05% of Group IXF.

Averages Extremes Length 2.40 cm. Length 1.8 - 3.1 cm. Width 1.74 cm. Width 1.2 - 2.8 cm. Thickness 0.37 cm. Thickness 0.2 - 0.55 cm.

IXF4. Small to medium sized, ovate spalls that radiate outward from a positive bulb of percussion. These specimens may have been struck from prepared cores since a few display fine negative bulbs of percussion. Some were utilized along two edges, others along one edge only. This group numbers six pieces, or 7.23% of Group IXF.

Averages Extremes
Length 2.53 cm. Length 2.1 - 3.1 cm.
Width 2.08 cm. Width 1.7 - 2.8 cm.
Thickness 0.36 cm. Thickness 0.2 - 0.5 cm.

IXF5. Medium sized, sub-rectangular flakes, approximately twice as long as they are wide. These specimens possess a positive bulb of percussion at one end and were utilized along either or both of their long edges. They number five specimens, or 6.02% of Group IXF.

Averages Extremes Length 3.72 cm. Length 2.8 - 4.5 cm. Width 2.0 cm. Width 1.5 - 2.5 cm. Thickness 0.34 cm. Thickness 0.3 - 0.4 cm.

IXF6. Small to medium sized, rectangular flakes utilized along one edge only. These pieces were probably struck from a prepared platform, for each possesses a small triangular facet at the bulb of percussion. This group numbers three pieces, or 3.61% of Group IXF.

Averages Extremes Length 2.6 cm. Length 1.9 - 3.5 cm. Width 2.0 cm. Width 1.6 - 2.7 cm. Thickness 0.57 cm. Thickness 0.3 - 1.0 cm.

IXF7. Small to medium sized flakes ranging in outline from sub-triangular to stocking, shaped. The bulb of percussion among these pieces appears, respectively at the toe of the stocking or a corner of the triangle. These specimens were utilized along any or all of their edges. They number 16 items, or 19.28% of Group IXF.

Averages Extremes Length 2.93 cm. Length 2.4 - 4.2 cm. Width 1.66 cm. Width 1.2 - 2.5 cm. Thickness 0.3 cm. Thickness 0.2 - 0.4 cm.

IXF8. Small, thin, sub-rectangular flakes with a shallow, triangular cross section. These specimens may have served as micro blades. They are utilized along one edge only. This group numbers 4 specimens, or 4.82% of Group IXF.

Averages Extremes Length 2.08 cm. Length 1.7 - 2.5 cm. Width 1.36 cm. Width 0.9 - 1.7 cm. Thickness 0.25 cm. Thickness 0.15- 0.35 cm.

IXF9. This group is comprised of a single flake shaped in the form of an isosceles triangle. It has been utilized along all three edges and appears to have functioned as a knife. It comprises 1.20% of Group IXF, and measures 3.3 x 2.3 x 0.4 cm.

IXF10. This group is composed of utilized flakes too fragmentary for further identification and also flakes the utilization of which is questionable though possible. It numbers 21 pieces, or 25.30% of Group IXF.

IXG. This group is composed of all projectile points and projectile point fragments manufactured from cryptocrystallines. It amounts to 37 pieces, or 56.92% of Group IXG.

IXG1a. Corner notched points or fragments thereof. This group numbers 36 specimens, or 97.3% of Group IXG1.

IXG1ai. Broad, thick, corner notched points possessing excurvate sides, either pointed or slightly rounded barbs (tangs), and an expanding, excurvate base. These points have a lenticular cross section. They vary considerably in length, falling along quite a continuum. Specimens have been chosen for illustration that represent the range and variety in this continuum (Fig. 9, a-f). This group constitutes 15 specimens, or 41.67% of Group IXG1a.

Averages Extremes
Length 3.49 cm. Length 2.265 - 4.370 cm.
Width 2.41 cm. Width 1.735 - 3.105 cm.
Thickness 0.61 cm. Thickness 0.480 - 0.865 cm.

Figure 9. Flaked Points.

IXG1aii. Corner notched points with straight or S-curved sides, a lenticular cross section, square or rounded tangs, and an expanding, straight to slightly excurvate base. This group numbers 5 items, or 13.89% of Group IXG1a (Fig 9, g-i).


Length 4.91 cm. Length 3.195 - 7.570 cm.

Width 2.82 cm. Width 2.600 - 3.180 cm.

Thickness 0.59 cm. Thickness 3.500 - 0.730 cm.

IXGl1iii. Thick, shallowly corner notched point, possessing excurvate sides, rounded shoulders, a thick lenticular cross section, and a bulbous, excurvate base. This item comprises 2.78% of Group IXG1a, and measures 3.595 x 1.630 x 0.860 cm. (Fig. 10, a).

IXG1aiv. Small eccentric, corner notched points, possessing slight excurvate sides, one rounded tang, one weak shoulder, and a narrow parallel sided stem with a slightly excurvate base (Fig. 10, b). This group numbers 2 specimens, or 5.56% of Group IXG1a.

Averages Extremes

Length 2.45 cm. Length 2.0 - 2.9 cm.

Width 1.55 cm. Width 1.5 - 1.6 cm.

Thickness 0.43 cm. Thickness 0.4 - 0.45 cm.

IXG1av. Fragments of corner notched points too incomplete to identify more specifically. This group numbers 4 specimens, or 11.11% of Group IXG1a.

IXG1avi. The specimens composing this group are apparently unfinished projectile points. Their unfinished status makes it impossible to predict what they would have been. They are important, however, since they indicate that projectile points were being mnufactured at the site. This group boasts 4 specimens, or 11.11% of Group IXG1a.

IXG1avii. Crude, shallowly corner notched points, possessing excurvate sides, weak shoulders, and an abruptly expanding, straight to slightly excurvate base. The general appearance of these specimens suggests that they were probably used as knives (Fig. 10, c-d). This group is composed of 3 pieces, or 8.330% of Group IXG1a.

Averages Extremes
Length 2.97 cm. Length 2.35 - 3.5 cm.
Width 1.32 cm. Width 1.4 - 1.8 cm.
Thickness 0.45 cm. Thickness 0.35 - 0.6cm.

IXG1aviii. Thin, slightly curbed flake, retouched around the edges to form a small, corner notched point. This piece was probably used as a scraper or hafted as a knife. it measures

1.9 x 1.5 x 0.2 cm. and comprises 2.78% of Group IXG1a.

IXG1aix. Very large, thin, slightly curved flake, retouched a little long the edges and crudely notched to produce a point with an expanding, excurvate base. This specimen is much too large and fragile to have served as a projectile point. It was most likely either an unfinished piece, a scraper, or a knife. It measures 5.5 x 3.6 x 0.2 cm., and comprises 2.78% of Group IXG1a.

IXG1ax. Triangular point, slightly greater in length than in width, possessing excurvate sides and base. Though carefully executed, it is not clear whether or not this specimen is complete. Several of the corner notched points in Groups IXG1ai and IXG1aii were evidently notched after their outline was complete, and it is therefore that it represents an incomplete version of the points found in Group IXGlai. It measures 3.1 x 2.6 x 016 cm., and comprises 2.78% of Group IXG1a (Fig. 13, e).

IXG1b. Projectile point, possessing excurvate sides, prominent shoulders, a slightly contracting stem, excurvate base, and a thick, lenticular cross section. More will be said of this specimen in the discussion of trade and materials that follows this section. This piece measures 3.990 x 2.555 x 0.700 cm., and comprises 2.70% of Group IXG1 (Fig, 11, a).

Figure 10. Flaked Points and Knives.

IXG2. This group is composed of all the knives that are made of cryptocrystalline materials or obsidian. It numbers 16 specimens, or 24.62% of Group IXG.

IXG2a. Bipointed knife, possessing irregular excurvate sides and a shallow lenticular cross section. This specimen was manufactured by means of pressure flaking. It measures 5.0 x 2.1 x 0.5 cm., and comprises 6.25% of Group IXG2 (Fig. 10, f).

IXG2b. The two specimens comprising this group possess excurvate sides and bases, and shallow, lenticular cross sections. They were blocked out by means of percussion and finished through pressure flaking. The larger of the two is obsidian; the smaller is slightly irregular in shape and could have been used as a projectile point. These specimens comprise 12.50% of Group IXG2. (Fig. 10, g-h).

Averages Extremes

Length 4.95 cm. Length 4.3 - 5.6 cm.

Width 2.65 cm. Width 2.0 - 3.3 cm.

Thickness 0.5 cm. Thickness 0.5 - 0.5 cm.

IXG2c. Large, percussion flaked knife, irregular in shape (Fig. 10, i). It is not clear whether this specimen was broken and later reworked along the broken edge, or whether one edge was simply left in a rougher form than the others. It measures 5.3 x 4.2 x 0.7 cm., and comprises 6.25% of Group IXG2.

IXG2d. Small knives of irregular shape, possessing one straight side, one curved side, and a base formed by a portion of the striking platform which was detached as a part of the flake prior to manufacture. This group numbers 4 specimens, or 25.00% of Group IXG2 (Fig. 10, j).

Averages Extremes
Length 3.25 cm. Length 2.5 - 4.1 cm.
Width 1.81 cm. Width 1.5 - 2.05 cm.
Thickness 0.7 cm. Thickness 0.4 - 1.0 cm.

IXG2e. Miscellaneous knife fragments. Most of the specimens in this group represent a kind of knife not yet recovered, in complete form, from SN100. Numbering 8 pieces, this group comprises 12.50% of Group IXG2.

IXG3. All points and knives made of basalt have been set aside in this special group. This was done because it is apparent that they were trade articles not indigenous to SN100. This conclusion along with the general problem of trade will be discussed in the section dealing with materials. This group numbers 6 specimens, or 9.23% of Group IXG.

IXG3a. Basalt projectile point possessing straight sides, a lenticular cross section, moderately weak shoulders, a contracting stem, and a slightly excurvate base. The base is formed by the outer surface of a river cobble and was evidently a portion of the striking platform from which the flake was struck to make this specimen. It measures 4,290 x 1.830 x 0.650, and comprises 16.67% of Group IXG3. (Fig. 11, b).

IXG3b. Small knife possessing excurvate sides, moderately prominent shoulders, a contracting stem, and a base similar to that of the piece just described (IXG3a). It measures 3.740 x 2.210 x 0.485 cm., and comprises 16.67% of Group IXG3 (Fig. 11, c).

Figure 11. Flaked Points and Knives.

IXG3c. Projectile point possessing straight sides, large square shoulders, a parallel sided stem, and a straight base. This specimen is large for a projectile point and may have been used as a knife instead. It measures 5.425 x 3.065 x 0.785 cm., and comprises 16.67% of Group IXG3 (Fig. 11, d).

IXG3d. Medium sized, pentagonal point or knife, possessing straight sides and a straight base. It measures 4.085 x 1.790 x 0.500 cm., and comprises 16.67% of Group IXG3 (Fig. 11, e).

IXG3e. Crude, thick, irregularly pentagonal knife. The sides and base of this specimen are slightly excurvate. It measures 4.9 x 2.4 x 1.0 cm., and comprises 16.67% of Group IXG3 (Fig. 11, f).

IXG3f. Large, thick, crude knife irregular in shape. This specimen possesses excurvate sides and a slightly excurvate base. One edge is formed by the remnants of a striking platform. This piece measures 5.4 x 3.3 x 1.4 cm., and comprises 16.67% of Group IXG3 (Fig. 11, g).

IXG4. Unidentifiable fragments of bifacially flaked objects. This group numbers 6 specimens, or 9.23% of Group IXG.

This point marks the end of the descriptive outline of stone artifacts from SN100. It also serves to initiate the next section of this paper, which deals with the materials from which the stone artifacts were manufactured, and the implications that their use and distribution imply.


The discussion of artifact materials has been separated from the artifact description for three reasons. First, materials from SN100 include many items other than artifacts, such as chipping detritus and unworked graphite. Second, a systematic appraisal of material type could not be made within the framework of a descriptive outline designed to treat artifacts; and third, in discussing these materials this report will depart from the area of pure description which it has maintained, and postulate some hypothesis concerning the position of SN100 in the total view of Northwest prehistory. The bases for these ideas will be taken from a discussion of materials and the trade that they indicate.

The discussion of artifact materials has been divided up into several sections the first of which is cryptocrystallines.

CRYPTOCRYSTALLINES. Cryptocrystalline materials recovered from SN103 include agate, jasper, chert, opal and petrified wood. They range greatly in color and texture, and furnished 94.43% of the material used for the chipped stone artifacts recovered from the site. In general, their vast array brings to mind the agates and petrified woods found and used along the Columbia River. Since the area in which SN100 is located is noted for neither a variety nor a quantity of such spectacular materials the serious question as to their origin arises. This problem may be met and at least partially answered by analyzing the kinds and uses of cryptocrystallines at the site. First it is interesting to note the contrast of use that existed between igneous rocks and cryptocrystallines. The use of each was completely compartmentalized, for, although the former was capable of being flaked into points, scrapers, and the like, it was used only in the manufacture of cobble implements, while the latter furnished the material for almost all such objects. Indeed, the only exceptions to these complementary roles are; 1) the use of eight flakes (out of many hundreds) derived from the manufacture of cobble implements, 2) the use of some obsidian in lieu of cryptocrystallines, and, 3) six basalt points and knives which do not appear to have been manufactured at the site. These will be discussed in some detail later. Of present importance is the fact that igneous rocks and cryptocrystallines were used with utmost discrimination by the culture represented at SN100. From this we may derive these important pieces of information: 1) the strict complementary roles of the two materials and the precise but divergent techniques used in working them indicate a fully developed technological pattern which must be the product of a fairly long tradition existent prior to the occupation of SN100; 2) the extensive use of cryptocrystallines indicates an available supply which must have been indigenous to the area or the product of a well developed system of prehistoric trade and inter-change; and 3) from these two facts it follows that the source or sources of these cryptocrystallines must have remained constant over a long period of time.

The second general observation that can be made about the cryptocrystallines found at SN100 deals with the conservation of their use. Though no formal count has been made, it is estimated that for every worked piece of cryptocrystalline material about three unworked flakes have been found. In this regard it should also be added that all of the flakes found in the excavations at SN100 have been saved and that these include many minute specimens. A further contrast is provided when we consider that for every worked piece of obsidian recovered from the site one piece of unworked obsidian has also been found. It seems apparent that some degree of conservation was practiced at SN100, since in other areas, such as the Plateau, where cryptocrystallines were readily at hand, there are hundreds of flakes for every artifact. It is obvious then that the site's supply of materials was limited and that a definite effort had to be expended in obtaining them. The question is, were they indigenous to the general area in small but sufficient quantities or imported from other areas of Washington.

Old timers among the rockhounds will sometimes reminisce and tell you that the materials such as we have at SN100 were locally available when they first started picking the country. Undoubtedly there was and still is a certain among of float in the area, but this could hardly account for the variety and quantity at SN100. The rivers in the immediate area also contain a small amount of material, and in this connection it is interesting to note that only four or five flakes of jasper have been recovered that display signs of having been a portion of river cobble. Moreover from our modern knowledge of the area

it is safe to conclude that more thin 90% of the cryptocrystallines utilized at SN100 did not come from the Snoqualmie, Skirkomish, Stillaguamish or Skagit river basins. Thus, points north, at least for material origin, are eliminated.

Moving south, however, we find vast deposits of a variety of cryptocrystallines in association with coal deposits in the vicinity of Tono, Green River, and Silver Lake, Washington, just to name a few principal centers. From these areas rock hunters have extracted tons of materials, including all the kinds of cryptocrystallines found at SN100. However, serious doubts have been raised in ascribing the origins of SN100 materials to these areas since they are, in general, noted for their rich supply of dark Carnelian agate, a mineral conspicuously absent from the assemblage of materials gathered from the site. It is possible, however, that isolated pockets of cryptocrystallines exist, especially in the area of Green River. If this were the case, and if the materials found at SN100 were gathered from a small, well defined area, then it follows that they could have been brought or traded the short distance northward to the Snoqualmie River basin.

Such a hypothesis centers on many "ifs." Moreover, it must vie with another, equally plausible theory, namely that the bulk of the materials found at SN100 were received in trade either directly or indirectly from the Plateau. There is abundant evidence to support this theory. First of all virtually all the cryptocrystallines present at SNIDO may be found along the Columbia River in vast quantities. Secondly, prehistoric channels of trade through any one of the larger passes were open and evidently used. Third the highly developed stone chipping industry and particularly the use of corner notched points, suggests definite influences from the Plateau. The similarities of material culture of each have been further reinforced by the discovery of a component in a site (45KT28) south of Trinidad, Washington; there the stone artifact assemblage consists of large corner notched points with a thick lenticular cross section, numerous end scrapers, blade like scrapers identical to those in Group M5, blade like flakes, and utilized flakes. This similarity suggests that a close relation exists between the two. It is quite possible, as a matter of fact, that their origins were common and that the culture represented at SN100 was the result of a population shift from the Plateau to the Puget Sound Basin. Such an occurrence would have had to have taken place a fairly long time before the occupation of SN100, since the culture there had by that time borrowed heavily from the north and evidently adjusted to the new riverine economy. These connections with the north will be discussed later under the heading of basalt.

OBSIDIAN. Thirty-four pieces of this material have been recovered from SN100, including one piece of the double flow variety. Its origin is unquestionably Oregon, and must therefore have been an article of trade. As previously stated the unworked pieces of the obsidian nearly equal the worked pieces, which seems to indicate, first, that obsidian was imported and worked on the site, and second, that, though it was in relatively high demand, it was never too scarce. The fact that conservation was practiced is also demonstrated by the average measurements of worked and unworked pieces. The former's average measurements are 2.35 x 1.2 x 0.24 cm., while the latter's are 1.32 x 0.91 x 0.17 cm.

The fact that obsidian was considered a scarce material is also demonstrated by the way in which it was used. Although it accounts for only 4.18% of the total number of stone artifacts, it nevertheless comprises 100% of Group IXA2, 5,0% of IXA1ai 37.5% of IXA1b, and 18% of Group IXA. Thus it was preferred in the production of micro blades. It was also used in the manufacture of knives and points, and detritus from these was occasionally utilized without modification.

BASALT. Only six pieces of worked basalt have been recovered from SN 100, (Fig.11, b-g). All are points or knives, and all were apparently articles of trade. This conclusion is based on a wide range of facts including style, workmanship, material, and the like. Early in the formulation of this article it was noticed that these six pieces were of a radically different style than their companions. None conform to the general forms or technological ideals represented by the other points or knives. With respect to the knives, this may be readily seen by comparing Figures 10 and 11. The same is obviously true with respect to the stemmed points and knife with the exception of one jasper point (Fig. 11.9a). Like three of the basalt specimens this piece possesses a different base arrangement than any of the other points from SN100. Nevertheless, it still differs from the basalt pieces in many ways, including cross section, size, body silhouette, material, and length width ratio. In all of these exceptions it conforms to the general norm of Group IxGlai. Moreover, not only does its base differ in detail with those of the basalt pieces in question, but also its irregular workmanship suggests that its maker ran into some trouble in the process of manufacture. This could account for the specimen's divergence from the usual pattern. Another possibility is that it was meant to be a copy of a contracting stemmed point. Putting other arguments of style aside there still remain many and strong reasons for asserting that the six basalt pieces reached SN100 by means of trade.

Among the 105 cobble implements and the hundreds of spalls produced in the manufacture of similar pieces, there is not one piece of basalt or basaltic material that even approximates that of the six items in question. Moreover, we have no evidence to indicate that detritus produced by the cobble industry was used in the manufacture of knives or points. These observations led us to make general comparisons between the basalt in the six specimens under discussion and other basalt and basaltic forms aboriginally employed in the Northwest. This was done by analyzing the visible structure of the basalt under a comparatively low powered microscope.

Initially it was found that three basic kinds of basalt were represented among the six pieces from SNIDO. In the two contracting stemmed pieces, which were manufactured by the same technique (See Groups IY.G3~k and IXG3b), the basalt was fine-grained and possessed small, scattered phenocrysts and an occasional quartz crystal. On the other hand, the small pentagonal point or knife (Fig. e) was made from an intensely black basalt with a somewhat coarse grain, while the three remaining specimens (Fig. 11) were made from very coarse basalt containing large phenocrysts.

Knowing this, we proceeded to compare each of the six specimens to basaltic flakes and artifacts from a number of areas in the Northwest, including Whidbey Island, the Skagit Delta, the Olcott site in Snohomish County, the Fraser River Delta, Vancouver Island, and the upper Fraser River as far north as Ashcroft.

Though the comparisons were limited by the number of pieces available for study, a coherent pattern still resulted, which, though tentative, provides a base for further research. Basically these results can be summed up as follows: a) none of the varieties of basalt from SN100 resembles the material from the Upper Fraser, which is fine grained and non-felspathic in nature; b) none of the material found at SN100, resembles the Olcott material, which is a very fine grained basalt; c) the basalt out of which the two contracting stemmed pieces are made occurs commonly on the south end of Vancouver Island and the lower Fraser River Delta; d) the basalt of the pentagonal piece was noted only from Whidbey Island, where it was quite common; and e) the basalt from the remaining two knives and one point was common from the Fraser River Delta southward.

Accepting these results as valid, the picture one gets is that of trade relations both with the Fraser River Delta and Washington's inland waters, conclusions which are hardly surprising considering; a) the proximity of the two areas, b) the extensive use of micro blades most likely diffused from the Fraser River Delta southwar4 and c) the use of realgar which was evidently from the coast near La Conner, Washington. Though these conclusions are tentative in nature they may still serve to indicate the direction of future research.

QUARTZ CRYSTALS. Two flakes of quartz crystal and a complete crystal have been recovered from SN100. The complete crystal is unworked and of too poor a quality to flake, the chips are of gem quality material and must have come from fairly large crystals. Further excavation at the site will undoubtedly yield artifacts of this material.

REALGAR. One piece of ground as well as five unworked pieces of realgar have been recovered from SN100 (see Group IV). These pieces were probably used for pigment and could have come from a deposit near La Conner, Washington.

GRAPHITE. Two pieces of unworked graphite were found; one is a schist and the other in pure form. It is hoped that with further excavation worked specimens will be found.

Acknowledgments: The author and editors would like to thank Suzanne Weld for her beautiful illustrations of the cobble implements and Del Nordquist for illustrating the chipped stone material.