45KT28/1413. Antler Gambling Bone, Type I; Component VII-I, Cayuse III Subphase.

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The Cayuse III Subphase

 

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[85] The Cayuse III Subphase, beginning between 1600 and 1700 A.D. and terminating in the early historic period, appears to represent a cultural response within the Plateau to the expanding American frontier.  It is characterized by a


POINTS & KNIVES FROM CAYUSE III SUBPHASE. SELECT IMAGE TO ENLARGE.

  Conventions
Abstract
Table of Contents
Letters
Figures & Tables
Acknowledgements
Introduction
Definitions
Setting
Cultural Record
 Introduction
 Vantage Phase
 Cold Springs
 Frenchman Spring
 Quilomene Bar
 Cayuse Phase
  Characteristics
  Age
  Ethnography
  Salishan
  Stratigraphy
  Cayuse I
  Cayuse II
  Cayuse III
  Discussion
Summation
Models for
  Prehistory

Typology
Stone Artifacts
  Flaked Stone
  Percussion
  Ground Stone
Bone/Antler Tools
Shell Artifacts
Metal Artifacts
Raw Materials
Methodology
Rockshelters
References Cited

host of distinctive features, including the mass diffusion of artifact types from one part of the Plateau to another and the extensive influence of Plains culture which has so preoccupied the ethnographers of Plateau culture.

This subphase is represented by five subcomponents at 45KT28. Of these only three yielded diagnostic assemblages containing 1,320 artifacts as well as large amounts of faunal remains and chipping detritus.

SUBCOMPONENT VIIH

Stratigraphy and House Design. Subcomponent VIIH, the most recent pit house encountered in the House Pit 15 excavation, was dug into the depression left by another, much older structure, Subcomponent VIIC. In the process an adjacent depression marking Subcomponent VIIF was evidently used as a dump area for much of the earth from the house excavation. As a result all surface indications of the existence of Subcomponent VIIF were obliterated.

Because the floor and walls of Subcomponent VIIH are poorly defined in the Stratigraphic record, our knowledge of the house design is dependent in large part upon the distribution of certain traits peculiar to the house floor and fill immediately above the floor. These include large quantities of salmon vertebrae, beads and pendants of stone, adzes, pipes, and certain varieties of stemmed projectile points (Type Variants 6A and 6B; Types 8, 9, 10, 11). From the distribution of these items, the extent of the house depression, and Stratigraphic sections on the east, south, and west edges of the structure, it may be said that Subcomponent VIIH was an oval-shaped house approximately 40 feet long, 35 feet wide, and three feet deep. The floor was level and the walls [85/86] nearly vertical. No structural features were encountered.

Artifact Assemblage. The fill within the house structure averaged about three feet in thickness and was highly productive throughout. In addition to 427 artifacts, large amounts of detritus were recovered.

Artifact Catalogue.

Chipped stone artifacts (253)
  Stemmed projectile points (91)
    Type 5 (2)
      (2) Type Variant 5A
    Type 6 (54)
      (25) Type Variant 6A (Fig. 39, a-c, f)
      (3) Type Variant 6B
      (5) Type Variant 6C (Fig. 39, i-j)
      (2) Type Variant 6E
      (1) Type Variant 6G (Fig. 39, z)
      (17) Miscellaneous specimens (Fig. 39, hh)
      (1) Points in the process of manufacture
    Type 8 (14)
      (1) Type Variant 8A
      (2) Type Variant 8D (Fig. 41, l)
      (5) Type Variant 8E (Fig. 41, i-k)
      (4) Type Variant 8F (Fig. 41, o)
      (3) Type Variant 8G (Fig. 41, q)
      (1) Miscellaneous specimens (Fig. 41, y)
    Type 9 (13)
      (11) Type Variant 9A (Fig. 40. b, f,j, p-q)
      (2) Type Variant 9D (Fig. 40, z)
    Type 10 (4)
      (3) Type Variant 10A (Fig. 41, ii-kk)
      (1) Type Variant 10B (Fig. 41, mm)
    Type 11 (2)
      (2) Type Variant 11A (Fig. 41, oo)
    (1) Form 1 (Fig. 42, a)
    (1) Form 9
  Triangular points (10)
    Type 1 (10)
      (1) Type Variant 1B
      (9) Type Variant 1C (Fig. 44, h, q)
  Semi-triangular points (4)
    (3) Type 1 (Fig. 45, c-d)
    (1) Type 2 (Fig. 45, f)
  Lanceolate points (1)
    (1) Form 3 (Fig. 45,l)
  (36) Point or knife fragments
  Knives (44)
    (7) Type 1 (Fig. 47, b)
    (1) Style 1
    (3) Style 2 [86]
    [87] (1) Style 3
    (1) Style 10
    (1) Style 11 (Fig. 51, d)
    (1) Miscellaneous specimen (Fig. 52, d)
    (28) Fragments
  Core tools (4)
    (4) Type 2
  Scrapers (32)
    (8) Type 1 (Fig. 54, h-i)
    Type 2 (11)
      (2) Type Variant 2C (Fig. 55, k)
      (9) Type Variant 2D
    Type 3 (2)
      (1) Type Variant 3A
      (1) Type Variant 3B
    (3) Style 1
    (1) Style 3
    (5) Fragments of end and side scrapers
    (2) Fragments of other scrapers
  Gravers (3)
    (3) Type 1
  (2) Possible blades (Fig. 61, g)
  (26) Utilized flakes (Fig. 63, c, i-j)
(24) Basalt spall scrapers (Fig. 64, c, e, g, i)
(2) Miscellaneous flaked cobble tools (Fig. 66, c)
Stone tools of percussion (10)
  (3) Pestles (Fig, 67, c)
  Crushing implements (7)
    (7) Style 1 (Fig. 70, f)
(2) hopper mortars
(5) Ground adzes (Fig. 71, a-c)
(3) Pipes (Fig. 72, b-c)
(1) Shaft smoother (Fig. 73, b)
Stone beads and pendants (39)
  (22) Style 1 (Fig. 74, a-e, g-i)
  (5) Style 2 (Fig. 74, k-m)
  (2) Style 3 (Fig. 74, n)
  (2) Form 1 (Fig. 74, o)
  (7) Form 2 (Fig. 74. q-s, u-w)
  (1) Form 3 (Fig. 74, p)
(5) Round sandstone balls (Fig. 74, x-y)
(4) Yellow ocher
(2) Red ocher
Bone and antler artifacts (62)
  Awls (21)
    (4) Type 1
    (3) Type 2 (Fig. 78, d, i)
    (10) Type 3 (Figs. 79. h-i; 80. b-d)
    (4) Fragments
  (1) Pin or needle (Fig. 82, a) [87]
  [88] Composite harpoon valves (1)
    (1) Type 1
  Composite harpoon tips (2)
    (2) Style 1 (Fig. 85, m-n)
  Composite harpoon tips or salmon spear barbs (1)
    (1) Type 1
  Projectile points (2)
    (1) Type 1
    (1) Style 2 (Fig. 85, h)
  Pressure flaking implements (16)
    (13) Type 1 (Fig. 89. g)
    (2) Style 1
    (1) Form 3 (
Fig. 89, d)
  Antler splitting wedges (1)
    (1) Type 1
  (1) Beaver tooth engraver (
Fig. 91, b)
  Gambling bones (5)
    (5) Style 1 (Fig, 93, d)
  Beads and pendants (2)
    (1) Style 1
    (1) Form 5
  (3) Fragments of points, awls, etc.
  (4) Fragmentary bone artifacts
  (1) Cut bone detritus
  (1) Adzed antler beam
Shell artifacts of trade (9)
   Ornaments (9)
    (6) Type 1 (Fig. 97, h)
    (1) Form 1 (Fig. 98)
    (2) Form 2 (Fig. 97, d)
Shell artifacts of local manufacture (3)
    (3) Type 1 (Fig. 97, c)

Total number of artifacts 427

The following is a catalogue of flaking detritus and faunal remains recovered from Subcomponent VIIH. It represents but a sample of the total amount of such materials encountered during the subcomponent's excavation.

  Mammal bone detritus (at least 90% deer) ................................... 2,571
  Bird bone detritus ..................................................................... 6
  Rodent bone detritus ................................................................. 2
  Salmon vertebrae ................................................................... 555
  Freshwater mussel shells .......................................................... 469
  Cryptocrystalline silica flakes .................................................. 1,512


Sample Faunal Remains from VIIH

  45KT28/B831. VIIA or VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 9CL
36 - 42"
Scale bar 1 cm.

Note grooves.

 

Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/1034. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 7L2
7 - 12"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/2173. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 4L1
36 - 42"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/1313. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 3L1
24 - 30"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/1241. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 9L1
30 - 36"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/1248. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 3L1
30 - 36"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/2172. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 4L1
36 - 42"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/2194. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 6L1
36 - 42"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/2335. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 7CL
Datum 7CL
30 - 36"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/2156. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 4L1
30 - 36"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1834. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 4L2
36 - 42"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1844. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 4L2
36 - 42"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

  45KT28/B1244. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 9L1
30 - 36"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

  45KT28/B1381. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 3L1
48 - 54"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

  45KT28/B2356. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 4L1
Datum 4L1
42 - 48"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

  45KT28/B2371. VIIH.

House Pit 15
Square 5L1
Datum 5l1
36 - 42"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

SUBCOMPONENT VII-I

Stratigraphy and House Design. Subcomponent VII-I is located at the House Pit 12 depression (Fig. 4) and was largely excavated by Mr. Ted Weld of Seattle, Washington, a number of years before the Washington Archaeological Society worked at the site. Unfortunately, [88/89] Mr. Weld did not keep profile records of the stratigraphy, and it remained for society excavations around the lip of the house pit to demonstrate the nature of the house structure and house fill. These excavations confirmed the recollections of Mr. Weld regarding the shape and type of house structure, and allow the following reconstruction to be made.

Subcomponent VII-I was a circular or nearly circular pit house between 35 and 40 feet in diameter. It was excavated to a depth of approximately five feet and possessed a level floor and vertical side walls (Figs. 4 and 29).

The only peculiar structural feature noted was a small pit adjacent to the main house structure (Fig. 4, House Pit 29). Very similar to Feature 1 at Subcomponent VIIF (Figs. 20, 22), this pit had vertical walls and was excavated to approximately the same depth as the main house structure. Its function is not known; suggested possibilities include a storage pit or menstrual hut.

Artifact Assemblage. Although Mr. Weld kept the artifacts from this subcomponent intact, no more specific data are available regarding their relative stratigraphic positions within the house fill. Fortunately, however, this presents no serious problem either in using the assemblage for comparative purposes or in placing it in the continuum of subcomponents representing the Cayuse Phase. Controlled excavations along the lip of the house pit disclosed that the house fill was homo¬geneous and everywhere highly productive of artifacts. Over 20 percent of all the artifacts recovered could have been derived only from a Cayuse III subcomponent, but there is no artifact which was recovered which could not be so ascribed. The relative frequencies of stemmed projectile point types, when compared with comparable figures for Subcomponent VIIH, suggest that we are not dealing with a watered-down Cayuse III assemblage but one which is even more representative of the subphase. This view is supported by a more detailed look at the assemblages from the two subcomponents in question. In addition to all of the artifact types contained in the assemblage from Subcomponent VIIH, Subcomponent VII-I contains many Plateau Pentagonal and Columbia River Mule-Eared knives as well as projectile points representative of a fully developed tradition of Columbia Plateau Side-Notched Points (Type 10), a more rudimentary form of which is found in Subcomponent VIIH.

The assemblage from Subcomponent VII-I contains 772 artifacts, 376 of which are identifiable projectile points. Associated flaking detritus and faunal remains were not saved.

Artifact Catalogue.

Chipped stone artifacts (644)
  Stemmed projectile points (320)
    Type 5 (8)
      (2) Type Variant 5A (Fig. 38, c-d)
      (2) Type Variant 5B (Fig. 38, h)
      (4) Miscellaneous specimens (Fig. 38, q, v)
    Type 6 (198)
      (103) Type Variant 6A (Fig. 39, e. g-h)
      (10) Type Variant 6B
      (25) Type Variant 6C
      (11) Type Variant 6E (Fig. 39, w)
      (3) Type Variant 6F (Fig. 39, y)
      (2) Type Variant 6G
      (42) Miscellaneous specimens (Fig. 39, ii, ll)
      (2) Specimens in the process of manufacture [89]
    [90] Type 8 (39)
      (1) Type Variant 8A (Fig. 41, a)
      (4) Type Variant 8B (Fig. 41, b-d)
      (2) Type Variant 8C (Fig. 41, e)
      (3) Type Variant 8D (Fig. 41, g)
      (7) Type Variant 8E (Fig. 41, l-m)
      (4) Type Variant 8F (Fig. 41, n. p)
      (1) Type Variant 8G (Fig. 41, r)
      (13) Miscellaneous specimens (Fig. 41, s-x, z)
    Type 9 (39)
      (25) Type Variant 9A (Fig. 40, a, o-d, g-i, k, m-o, r-t)
      (5) Type Variant 9B (Fig. 40, u-w)
      (1) Type Variant 9C
      (3) Type Variant 9D (Fig. 40, bb)
      (3) Type Variant 9E (Fig. 40, cc, ee)
      (2) Type Variant 9F (Fig. 40, ff-gg)
    Type 10 (27)
      (1) Type Variant 10A
      (24) Type Variant 10B (Fig. 41, aa-ff. hh-ii)
      (2) Type Variant 10C (Fig. 41, nn)
    Type 11 (9)
      (7) Type Variant 11A (Fig. 41, pp)
      (2) Type Variant 11B (Fig. 41, qq-rr)
    (1) Form 4 (Fig. 42, e)
    (1) Form 5 (Fig. 42, g)
  Leaf-shaped projectile points (3)
    (3) Form 1 (Fig. 42, 1, o-p)
  Triangular projectile points (31)
    Type 1(31)
      (1) Type Variant 1A
      (4) Type Variant 1B (Fig. 44, d-e)
      (26) Type Variant 1C (Fig. 44, j, r-s)
  Semi-triangular projectile points (20)
    (13) Type 1 (Fig.45, a-b)
    (2) Type 2
    (1) Style 1 (Fig. 45, m)
    (2) Form 1 (Fig. 45, i)
    (2) Form 2 (Fig. 45, j-k)
  Lanceolate projectile points (20)
    (1) Form 2 (Fig. 45, o)
    (1) Form 4
  Pentagonal points and knives (24)
    (6) Type 1 (Fig.46, e, g-i)
    (13) Type 2 (Fig. 46, a-d)
    (2) Style 1 (Fig. 46, 1)
    (2) Form 1 (Fig. 46, n)
    (1) Form 2 (Fig.46, m)
  (93) Point or knife fragments [90]
  [91] Knives (44)
    (16) Type 1 (Fig.47. m)
    (1) Style 1 (Fig. 49, c)
    (1) Style 2
    (2) Style 5 (Fig. 50, b)
    (1) Style 6 (Fig. 50, d)
    (1) Style 8 (Fig, 50, h)
    (1) Style 11
    (2) Form 5 (Fig. 51, k)
    (2) Form 6 (Fig. 52, j)
    (1) Miscellaneous specimen (Fig. 51, m)
    (16) Fragments
  Core tools (3)
    (3) Type 2
  Scrapers (56)
    (36) Type 1 (Fig. 54, f, j-k)
    Type 2 (9)
      (1) Type Variant 2A (Fig. 55, b)
      (2) Type Variant 2B (Fig. 55, c-d)
      (4) Type Variant 2C (Fig. 55, e-f)
      (2) Type Variant 2D
    Type 3 (1)
      (1) Type Variant 3A (3)
    Style 3
    (3) Fragments of end and side scrapers
    (4) Fragments of other scrapers
  Gravers (5)
    (2) Type 1
    (2) Style 1
    (1) Form 1 (Fig. 59, i)
  (10) Drills and awls (Fig. 59, k. r)
  (33) Utilized flakes (Fig. 63, h)
(8) Basalt spall scrapers
Stone tools of percussion (4)
  (2) Pestles (Fig. 67, b)
  Hammerstones (1)
    (1) Form 1 (Fig. 69)
  Crushing implements (1)
    (1) Style 1 (1)
Ground adze (Fig. 71, d)
(1) Shaft smoother (Fig. 73, a)
(1) Red ocher
Bone and antler artifacts (102)
  Awls (27)
    (4) Type 1 (Fig. 76, e-f)
    (3) Type 2 (Fig. 78, b, f)
    (8) Type 3 (Fig. 79, d-f)
    (1) Style 1 (Fig. 81, b)
    (11) Fragments [91]
  [92] (4) Pins and needles (Fig. 82, b-c)
  Composite harpoon valves (2)
    (1) Type 1 (Figs. 84, b; 85, q)
    (1) Form 1
  Composite harpoon tips (1)
    (1) Style 1
  Composite harpoon tips or salmon spear barbs (5)
    (4) Type 1 (Fig. 85, j-l)
    (1) Form 1 (Fig.85, p)
  Projectile points (8)
    (5) Type 1 (Fig. 85, b-e)
    (2) Style 3 (Fig. 85, t-u)
    (1) Form 1 (Fig. 85, g)
  Hafts (1)
    (1) Type 1 (Fig. 86, b)
  Pressure flaking implements (13)
    (13) Type 1 (Fig. 89, h, j)
  Antler splitting wedges (5)
    (5) Type 1 (Fig. 90, b, d)
  Gambling bones (8)
    (1) Type 1 (Fig. 93, f)
    (7) Style 1 (Fig. 93. b-c, e)
  Beads and pendants (7)
    (5) Type 1 (Fig. 93, l)
    (1) Form 1
    (1) Form 4 (Fig. 93, m)
  (7) Fragments of points or barbs
  (11) Fragments of points, awls, etc.
  (2) Fragmentary antler artifacts
  (1) Fragmentary bone artifact
  (1) Cut antler detritus
Shell artifacts of trade (5)
  Shell ornaments (5)
    (5) Type 1 (Fig. 97, h)
  Shell artifacts of local manufacture (4)
    (2) Type 1
    (1) Form 1 (Fig. 97, b)
    (1) Form 2 (Fig. 97, a)
  Metal artifacts (2)
    (1) Rowel (Fig. 99, a)
    (1) lock plate (Fig. 100)

Total number of artifacts (772)

SUBCOMPONENTS VIIJ AND VIIK

Stratigraphy and House Design. Subcomponents VIIJ and VIIK are large saucer-shaped pit houses probably representative of the last aboriginal occupation of 45KT28. The smaller, Subcomponent VIIJ, was slightly oval in outline, between 30 and 35 feet long, 25 and 30 feet wide, and four to six feet deep (Figs. 4, House Pit 5; 31). Subcomponent VIIK was of the same shape, but [92/93] somewhat larger, being between 45 and 50 feet long, 40 and 45 feet wide, and five to seven feet deep (Figs. 4, House Pit 10; 30).

The fill in each of the house structures is about one foot deep, of intensely black sandy earth, and characteristically has a greasy feel to it. The configuration of each saucer-shaped depression essentially duplicates that of the house structures themselves; the mounded lip was even still intact around much of Subcomponent VIIK.

The only structural feature encountered in the small test excavations at these house pits was a circular, stone-lined hearth which had been excavated in the exact center of Subcomponent VIIK (Fig. 30).

Artifact and Faunal Assemblages. Only two artifacts, both basalt spall scrapers, were recovered, one deriving from each of the subcomponents. Faunal remains were much more extensive, however, and consisted entirely of tremendous quantities of deer bone, a fact which suggests that firearms may have been used by the builders of these houses.

SUBCOMPONENT VIIL

Stratigraphy. Subcomponent VIIL is stratigraphically defined as the uppermost six inches of midden encountered in all the excavations in Cultural Component VII. Artifacts recovered from this surface blanket of midden suggest that it is consistently representative of the Cayuse III Subphase.

Artifact Assemblage. Subcomponent VIIL yielded 122 artifacts as well as a large number of cryptocrystalline flakes and fauna! remains. Of the 21 stemmed projectile points recovered, over half are characteristic only of the Cayuse III Subphase.

Artifact Catalogue.

Chipped stone artifacts (111)
  Stemmed projectile points (21)
    Type 5 (1)
      (1) Type Variant 5B
    Type 6 (13)
      (5) Type Variant 6A
      (1) Type Variant 6B (Fig. 39, q)
      (2) Type Variant 6E
      (4) Miscellaneous specimens
      (1) Points in the process of manufacture
    Type 8 (2)
      (1) Type Variant 8E
      (1) Miscellaneous specimens
    Type 9 (2)
      (1) Type Variant 9C (Fig. 40, y)
      (1) Type Variant 9E (Fig. 40, dd)
    Type 10 (2)
      (2) Type Variant 10C
    Type 11 (1)
      (1) Type Variant 11A
  Triangular projectile points (2) [93]
    [94] Type 1 (2)
      (2) Type Variant 1C
  Semi-triangular projectile points (1)
    (1) Form 2
  Pentagonal projectile points (1)
    (1) Type 1
  (12) Point or knife fragments
  Knives (19)
    (3) Type 1
    (1) Style 3
    (1) Style 11 (Fig.51, e)
    (14) Fragments
  Core tools (3)
    (3) Type 2
  Scrapers (15)
    (1) Type 1
    Type 2 (5)
      (3) Type Variant 2C
      (2) Type Variant 2D
    Type 3 (1)
      (1) Type Variant 3A
    (2) Style 2 (Fig. 58, f)
    (2) Fragments of end and side scrapers
    (4) Fragments of other scrapers
  Gravers (1)
    (1) Type 1
  (1) Drill or awl
  (1) Possible blade (Fig. 6l, c)
  (34) Utilized flakes
(3) Basalt spall scrapers (Fig. 64, d)
(1) Pipe (Fig. 72, a)
Bone and antler artifacts (5)
  Beaver tooth engravers (1)
    (1) Type 1
  Gambling bones (1)
    (1) Style 2
  Beads and pendants (1)
    (1) Form 2 (Fig. 93, n)
  (1) Fragmentary bone artifacts
  (1) Cut bone detritus
Metal artifacts (1)
  (1) Phoenix button (Fig. 99, b)

Total number of artifacts (122)

Associated Materials. The following is a catalogue of flaking detritus and faunal remains recovered from Subcomponent VIIL. It represents but a sample of the total amount of such materials encountered during the subcomponent's excavation. [94]

  [95] Mammal bone detritus (at least 90% deer) .............................. 676
  Bird bone detritus .................................................................. 1
  Rodent bone detritus .............................................................. 4
  Salmon vertebrae ................................................................. 22
  Freshwater mussel shells ....................................................... 112
  CryptocrystaUine silica flakes .................................................. 871 [95]


Sample Faunal Remains from VIIL

  45KT28/907. VIIL.

House Pit 15
Square 11L1
12 - 18"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

  45KT28/B1090. VIIL.

House Pit 15
Square 10R2
0 - 18"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

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LAST REVISED: 04 OCT 2018