45KT28/1413. Stone Knife, miscellaneous specimen; Component VIIA, Cayuse I Subphase.

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The Cayuse II Subphase

 

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[80] The Cayuse II Subphase is characterized by pit houses with vertical side walls and level floor areas when these are in association with projectile point assemblages overwhelmingly predominated by Columbia Plateau Corner-Notched and Quilomene Bar Base-Notched points. The subphase began between 600 and 1300 A.D. and terminated between 1600 and 1700 A.D. At 45KT28 it is represented by two subcomponents which yielded 210 artifacts in addition to quantities of chipping detritus and faunal remains.

SUBCOMPONENT VIIF

Stratigraphy and House Design. Subcomponent VIIF is a pit house which was excavated into the depression left by an earlier structure, Subcomponent VIIB (Figs. 5, 6, 18, 19, 20). It is roughly circular in outline, about 20 feet in diameter, and possesses a level floor area. The side walls, which have almost completely collapsed, were evidently vertical and probably reached a height of no more than three feet. The only structural feature encountered was a storage pit which was excavated next to and connected with the house structure. It was located on the west side of the house (Figs. 19, 20, 22) and was excavated to a depth equal to that of the house floor. It contained several artifacts, including four projectile points, two knife fragments, and a number of nondescript scrapers.

Artifact Assemblage. The subcomponent designation is applied to artifacts lying on the house floor and in the first twelve inches of fill above the floor. Fill lines above the floor indicate that much of the higher fill is dump, probably from the excavation of Subcomponent VIIH, an adjacent structure dating from a more recent period. [80]

[81] Only 75 artifacts were recovered from Subcomponent VIIF. Fortunately, these include 18 identifiable projectile points. Among the stemmed points, all diagnostic specimens are of Types 5 and 6, much the same as those contained in the Cayuse I assemblages.

Artifact Catalogue.

  Conventions
Abstract
Table of Contents
Letters
Figures & Tables
Acknowledgements
Introduction
Definitions
Setting
Cultural Record
 Introduction
 Vantage Phase
 Cold Springs
 Frenchman Spring
 Quilomene Bar
 Cayuse Phase
  Characteristics
  Age
  Ethnography
  Salishan
  Stratigraphy
  Cayuse I
  Cayuse II
  Cayuse III
  Discussion
Summation
Models for
  Prehistory

Typology
Stone Artifacts
  Flaked Stone
  Percussion
  Ground Stone
Bone/Antler Tools
Shell Artifacts
Metal Artifacts
Raw Materials
Methodology
Rockshelters
References Cited

Chipped stone artifacts (63)
  Stemmed projectile points (16)
    Type 5 (1)
      (1) Type Variant 5C
    Type 6 (12)
      (2) Type Variant 6A
      (3) Type Variant 6C
      (1) Type Variant 6E (Fig. 39. u)
      (1) Type Variant 6F (Fig. 39, x)
      (5) Type 6, miscellaneous specimens
    (1) "Type" 7
    (1) Form 4 (Fig. 42, f)
    (1) Form 8 (Fig. 42, j)
  Triangular projectile points (2)
    Type 1 (2)
      (2) Type Variant 1C
  (7) Point or knife fragments
  Knives (9)
    (4) Type 1
    (1) Style 1
    (1) Form 3 (Fig. 51, i)
    (3) Fragments
  Scrapers (11)
    (2) Type 1
    Type 2 (2)
      (2) Type Variant 2D
    (1) Style 1
    (2) Style 2
    (1) Style 3
    (2) Fragments of end or side scrapers
    (1) Fragments of other scrapers
  Gravers (1)
    (1) Type 1
  (1) Drill or awl
  (1) Possible blade
  (15) Utilized flakes (Fig. 63, m)
(1) Edge-worn fragments of basalt
(1) Yellow ocher
Bone and antler artifacts (10)
  Awls (2)
    (1) Type 1
    (1) Fragments
  (1) Spatulate scraper (Fig. 88, a)
  Antler splitting wedges (1)
    (1) Type 1 [81]
  [82] (1) Fragments of points, awls etc.
  (3) Fragmentary antler artifacts
  (2) Fragmentary bone artifacts

Total number of artifacts (75)

Associated Materials. The following is a catalogue of flaking detritus and faunal remains recovered from Subcomponent VIIF. It represents but a sample of the total amount of such materials encountered during the subcomponent's excavation.

  Mammal bone detritus (at least 90% deer) .................................... 670
  Bird bone detritus .................................................................... 2
  Rodent bone detritus ................................................................. 2
  Salmon vertebrae .................................................................... 33
  Freshwater mussel shells ........................................................... 24
  Cryptocrystlline silica flakes ...................................................... 484


Sample Faunal Remains from VIIF

  45KT28/B396. VIIF.

House Pit 15
Square 12R1
24 - 30"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B427. VIIF.

House Pit 15
Square 12L1
30 - 36"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B440. VIIF.

House Pit 15
Square 12R1
30 - 36"
Scale bar 1 cm.

Note two grooves at top of right hand image.

Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B489. VIIF.

House Pit 15
Square 13L1
30 - 36"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B782. VIIF.

House Pit 15
Square 13L1
24 - 30"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1889. VIIF.

House Pit 15
Square 12R2
24 - 30"
Scale bar 1 cm.

Note cut marks.

Click on images to enlage

SUBCOMPONENT VIIG

Stratigraphy and House Design. Subcomponent VIIG was located in the excavations at House Pit I (Fig. 4). It is a rectangular structure the eastern edge of which has been washed away by the Columbia River (Fig. 26). The north-south dimension is 37 feet, and it is likely that the east-west dimension was in the same order of magnitude, though only 25 feet of the deposits in that direction remained intact at the time of excavation. The floor of the house is quite level, and the side walls rise vertically to a height slightly over three feet above the floor (Fig. 27).


House Pit 1 was excavated by Walter Barke in 1960 using the system that was standard for the Washington Archaeological Society at the time. Get Walter Barke's field notes for House Pit 1.


An unusual feature complex was encountered along the northern edge of the house structure (Fig. 28). Here a slight recess had been cut into the house wall. At its bottom, excavated into the house floor, a large hearth was encountered which contained fire-cracked rock and charcoal-stained soil (Fig. 28, Feature 1). Above and to the west of the hearth, a large rectangular notch had been cut into the lip of the house wall. At the back of this recess a small storage pit had been gouged (Fig. 28, Feature 2). A similar, but smaller pit had been dug in the lip of the house wall above the western end of the fire pit (Fig. 28, Feature 3).

Another feature, not associated with either house structure or the fill in the house depression, was located just to the south of the southern house wall. It was a cache pit, excavated from the bottom of Stratum 5 into the uppermost portion of Stratum 4. It contained the only Type 1 core tool associated with Cultural Component VII, an end scraper, some round core tools (Type 2), and a number of large flake scrapers. Although it antedates Subcomponent VIIG, it is impossible to assign it to a specific subphase because our overall knowledge of the area's stratigraphy is not sufficiently detailed.

Artifact Assemblage. The subcomponent designation VIIG is applied to all those artifacts associated with the house floor and the first 12 inches of fill above the floor. A total of 135 artifacts were recovered, including 31 chipped stone projectile points.

Artifact Catalogue.

Chipped stone artifacts (117)
  Stemmed projectile points (20)
    Type 5 (2) [82]
      [83] (1) Type Variant 5C
      (1) Type Variant 5D
    Type 6 (18)
      (4) Type Variant 6A
      (1) Type Variant 6B
      (2) Type Variant 6C
      (1) Type Variant 6D (Fig, 39, bb)
      (1) Type Variant 6F
    (8) Miscellaneous specimens
    (1) Point in the process of manufacture
  Triangular points (10)
    Type 1 (10)
      (10) Type Variant 1C
  Semi-triangular points (1)
    (1) Type 2
  (7) Point or knife fragments
  Knives (17)
    (3) Type 1
    (1) Style 1
    (1) Style 2
    (1) Style 4
    (11) Fragmentary knives
  Core tools (2)
    (2) Type 2
  Scrapers (19)
    (3) Type 1
    Type 2 (5)
      (2) Type Variant 2C (Fig. 55, h)
      (3) Type Variant 2D
    Type 3 (2)
      (1) Type Variant 3A
      (1) Type Variant 3B (Fig. 57, b)
    (2) Style 1
    (1) StyIe 2
    (1) Style 3
    (2) Fragments of end or side scrapers
    (3) Fragments of other scrapers
  Gravers (1)
    (1) Style 1 (Fig. 59, h)
  (1) Possible blade (Fig. 61, i)
  (39) Utilized flakes (Fig. 63, a)
(1) Basalt spall scraper
Stone tools of percussion (1)
  (1) Pestle (Fig. 67, a)
(1) Ground basalt object fragment (Fig. 74, aa)
Bone and antler artifacts (33)
  Projectile points (1)
    (1) Type 1 (Fig. 85, f)
  Hafts (1)
    (1) Type 1 [83]
  [84] (1) Spatulate scraper (Fig. 88. b)
  Splitting wedges (4)
    (4) Type 1 (Fig. 90, e)
  Beads and pendants (1)
    (1) Type 1 (Fig. 93 j)
  (1) Fragment of point, awl, etc.
  (3) Cut bone detritus
  (1) Adzed antler beam
Shell artifacts of aboriginal trade
  (2) Shell ornaments (1)
    (1) Type 1
  Shell artifacts of utility (1)
    (1) Type 1 (Fig. 97, e)

Total number of artifacts (135)

Associated Materials. The following is a catalogue of flaking detritus and faunal remains from Subcomponent VIIG. It represents but a sample of the total amount of such materials encountered during the subcomponent's excavation.

  Mammal bone detritus (at least 90% deer) .................................... 730
  Bird bone detritus .................................................................... 3
  Rodent bone detritus ................................................................ 1
  Salmon vertebrae ................................................................... 95
  Freshwater mussel shells ......................................................... 210
  Cryptocrystalline silica flakes ................................................. 1,265


Sample Faunal Remains from VIIG

  45KT28/B1526. VIIG.

House Pit 1
Square 3R6
42 - 51"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1566. VIIG.

House Pit 1
Square 4CL
42"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1568. VIIG.

House Pit 1
Square 4CL
42"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1691. VIIG.

House Pit 1
Square 4R6
48 - 54"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

  45KT28/B1570. VIIG.

House Pit 1
Square 4CL
42"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

  45KT28/B1639. VIIG.

House Pit 1
Square 4L1
36 - 42"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1622. VIIG.

House Pit 1
Square 4L1
42"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

IDENTIFYING THE CAYUSE II SUBPHASE

The Cayuse II Subphase is defined through the use of two criteria. The first of these is a stemmed projectile point assemblage overwhelmingly dominated by Quilomene Bar Base-Notched and Columbia Plateau Corner-Notched points. The second is the occurrence of pit houses with level floor areas and vertical, unbenched walls. Taken separately, each of these characteristics persists over a greater period of time than the Cayuse II Subphase. The specified artifact assemblage also characterizes the Cayuse I Subphase where it is, however, associated with pit houses having interior benches. Similarily, flat-floored, vertical-walled pit houses persist throughout most or all of the Cayuse III Subphase, where they are associated with a quite different projectile point assemblage. It is the period of overlap, during which each of these characteristic features occur together, that marks the Cayuse II Subphase.

Due to a clear change in artifact types, the Cayuse II Subphase is readily distinguishable from the Cayuse III Subphase wherever there are clearly stratified projectile point assemblages for each. Unfortunately, this is not true of the Cayuse I Subphase. In deposits where house features are lacking, it may prove difficult or even impossible to distinguish the Cayuse I and Cayuse II subphases. Data from 45KT28 suggest that differences in the artifact assemblages characteristic of these subphases will be limited to (1) slight changes in the relative frequencies of some common artifact types, and (2) the possible addition or deletion of rarely occurring artifact forms. The following, inferred from the assemblages recovered at 45KT28, are suggested frequency changes which may be useful in distinguishing between Cayuse I and II subphase assemblages in the absence of structural remains. (1) Type Variants 6A and 6B (Columbia Plateau comer-Notched points) account for be¬tween 7 and 12 percent of all stemmed projectile points during the Cayuse II Subphase, but during [84/85] the Cayuse I Subphase they accounted for less than 4 percent of this category. (2) All other Columbia Plateau Corner-Notched points comprise between 65 and 75 percent of the stemmed points during the Cayuse II Subphase, but between 70 and 80 percent of such points during the Cayuse I Subphase. (3) It is also suggested that 5 to 12 percent of all stemmed projectile points manufactured during the Cayuse II Subphase were Quilomene Bar Base-Notched points, while during the Cayuse I Subphase such points accounted for between 15 and 20 percent of this assemblage. In addition to evidence such as this, the technical aspects of stone flaking should be studied as a part of the search for nonstructural criteria by which the Cayuse I and II subphases might be defined in mutually exclusive terms.

AGE AND DURATION OF THE CAYUSE II SUBPHASE

Adequate information regarding the beginning of the Cayuse II Subphase is not yet avail¬able. Crude estimates place the date between 600 and 1300 A.D.; more exact dating must await C14 age determination. The upper limits of the Cayuse II Subphase are more closely defined, as ethnographic information places the beginning of the Cayuse III Subphase between 1600 and 1700 A.D. Thus the duration of the Cayuse II Subphase may have been as little as 300 years or as much as 1,100.

Stratigraphic relationships in the House Pit 15 area at 45KT28 give one the impression that the period was relatively short-lived. However, factors such as differential rates of midden accumulation may have biased the data on which this observation is based. [85]

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LAST REVISED: 20 APL 2022