45KT28. Point Type 6C converted into a spoke shave, Cayuse Phase.

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The Cayuse I Subphase

 

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[68] The Cayuse I Subphase was inaugurated in the Vantage locale at about the beginning of the Christian Era. Characterized by pit houses with interior benches, the exact date of its termination is not now known but reasonable estimates range all the way from 600 to 1300 A.D.


ARTIFACTS OF THE CAYUSE I & II SUBPHASES. SELECT TO ENLARGE IMAGE.

  Conventions
Abstract
Table of Contents
Letters
Figures & Tables
Acknowledgements
Introduction
Definitions
Setting
Cultural Record
 Introduction
 Vantage Phase
 Cold Springs
 Frenchman Spring
 Quilomene Bar
 Cayuse Phase
  Characteristics
  Age
  Ethnography
  Salishan
  Stratigraphy
  Cayuse I
  Cayuse II
  Cayuse III
  Discussion
Summation
Models for
  Prehistory

Typology
Stone Artifacts
  Flaked Stone
  Percussion
  Ground Stone
Bone/Antler Tools
Shell Artifacts
Shell Artifacts
Metal Artifacts
Raw Materials

Methodology
Rockshelters
References Cited

SUBCOMPONENT VIIA

Stratigraphy. Probably the earliest identifiable Cayuse I subcomponent at 45KT28, VIIA is a massive fire pit and refuse heap complex which forms the bottommost lithologic unit of Stratum 5 in the central area of the House Pit 15 excavations (Figs. 5, 6, 18, 19, 20, 22). Originally occupying a more extensive area, it has been intruded by two benched pit houses. Subcomponents VIIB and VIIC (Figs. 18, 19). The area of its greatest concentration has been outlined in Figure 19. Here it varied from 18 to 24 inches in thickness and was composed of a solid mass of interbedded ash lenses containing tremendous amounts of fire-cracked rock, bone detritus, and flakes, as well as several hundred artifacts. Curiously enough, charred bone amounted to less than 1 percent of the bone detritus which was saved, and fire-hardened bone to only 6 percent of the bone detritus.

From this central area of concentration lenses of charcoal-stained sand spread into the surrounding deposits, where fire-cracked rock was sparse and bone detritus, flakes, and artifacts far less abundant.

Artifact Assemblage. Subcomponent VIIA yielded 874 artifacts, a highly varied assemblage containing projectile points, scrapers, core tools, fishing gear, a hopper mortar, awls, gambling bones, and a host of other forms. The following is a complete catalogue.

Artifact Catalogue.


Chipped stone artifacts (763)
  Stemmed projectile points (107)
    Type 5 (16)
      (2) Type Variant 5A
      (3) Type Variant 5B
      (5) Type Variant 5C (Fig. 38, l, n-p)
      (3) Type Variant 5D (Fig. 38, k)
      (3) Miscellaneous specimens (Fig. 38, t-u)
    Type 6 (80)
      (6) Type Variant 6A
      (2) Type Variant 6B
      (18) Type Variant 6C (Fig. 39. k, n)
      (2) Type Variant 6D (Fig. 39, cc-dd) [68]
      [69](14) Type Variant 6E (Fig. 39, s-v)
      (5) Type Variant 6F
      (1) Type Variant 6G
      (28) Miscellaneous specimens (Fig. 39, ff-gg)
      (4) Points in the process of being manufactured
    (5) "Type" 7 (Fig. 40, ii, kk-nn)
    Type 9 (3)
      (3) Type Variant 9A
    (2) Form 2 (Fig. 42, b-c)
    (1) Form 6 (Fig. 42, h)
  Leaf-shaped projectile points (2)
    (2) Form 1 (Fig. 42, n)
  Triangular projectile points (40)
    Type 1 (37)
      (7) Type Variant 1A (Fig. 44, a-c)
      (30) Type Variant 1C (Fig. 44, i, k)
    (1) Form 1 (Fig. 44, t)
    (1) Form 2 (Fig. 44, v)
    (1) Form 3 (Fig. 44, w)
  Semi-triangular projectile points or knives (13)
    (3) Type 1
    (9) Type 2 (Fig. 45, e, g-h)
    (1) Style 1
  Lanceolate projectile points (1)
    (1) Form 4
  Pentagonal projectile points and knives (2)
    (2) Style 1 (Fig. 46, j-k)
  (69) Point and knife fragments
  Knives (187)
    (65) Type 1 (Fig. 47. a, c, e-h, k)
    (9) Style 1 (Fig. 49, b, d)
    (6) Style 2 (Fig. 49, e-h)
    (2) Style 3
    (1) Style 4 (Fig. 49, l)
    (1) Style 5
    (1) Style 6
    (1) Style 8
    (2) Style 10 (Fig. 51, b)
    (1) Style 11 (Fig. 51, c)
    (3) Form 1 (Fig. 51, f)
    (3) Form 2 (Fig. 51, h)
    (1) Form 3
    (1) Form 4 (Fig. 51, j)
    (2) Form 7
    (3) Miscellaneous specimens (Figs. 51, l; 52, a, c)
    (85) Fragments
  Core tools (26)
    (25) Type 2 (Fig. 53, g, h)
    (1) Form (Fig. 53, i) [69]
  [70] Scrapers (148)
    (36) Type 1 (Fig. 54, l)
    Type 2 (40)
      2) Type Variant 2A (Fig. 55, a)
      (8) Type Variant 2C (Fig. 55, g, j, m)
      (30) Type Variant 2D (Fig. 56, b-d)
    Type 3 (1)
      (1) Type Variant 3A
      (23) Style 1 (Fig. 58, b)
      (2) Style 2 (Fig. 58, g)
    (10) Style 3 (Fig. 56, h)
    (1) Style 4
    (18) Fragments of end and side scrapers
    (17) Fragments of other scrapers
  Gravers (7)
    (5) Type 1 (Fig. 59, a-b)
    (2) Style 1
  (5) Drills and awls (Fig. 59, l-m, o, q)
  (4) Possible blades
  (153) Utilized flakes (Fig. 63, g, k)
(2) Basalt spall scrapers
(1) Edge-worn fragment of basalt
(4) Miscellaneous flaked cobble tools (Fig. 66, d)
Stone tools of percussion (9)
  Hammerstones (6)
    (4) Style 1 (Fig. 67, d, f)
    (2) Style 3 (Fig. 68, c)
  Crushing implements (3)
    (3) Style 1
(1) Hopper mortar
Beads and pendants of stone (2)
  (1) Style 1 (Fig. 74, f)
  (1) Form 2 (Fig. 74, t)
(1) Ground basalt tablet
(1) Ocher pallet
(4) Red ocher
Bone and antler artifacts (68)
  Awls (13)
    (8) Type 1 (Fig. 76, a-c)
    (1) Type 2 (Fig. 78, g)
    (2) Type 3 (Fig. 79, c)
    (1) Form 2 (Fig. 81, c)
    (1) Awl fragment
  Composite harpoon valves (1)
    (1) Form 1
  Composite harpoon tips or barbs (1)
    (1) Form 1 (Fig. 85, i)
  (2) Lateral barb guards for three-pronged salmon spears (Fig. 86, d-e)
  Projectile points (2)
    (2) Style 1
  Hafts (1) [70]
    [71] (1) Form 1 (Fig. 86, c)
  (1) Spatulate scraper (Fig. 88, d)
  (1) Fleshing implement (Fig. 88, e)
  (2) Splinter scrapers or fleshers
  Pressure-flaking implements (7)
    (6) Type 1 (Fig. 89, i)
    (1) Style 1
  Antler splitting wedges (1)
    (1) Type l (1)
  Beaver tooth engraver
  Gambling bones (2)
    (2) Form 1 (Fig. 93, a)
  Beads and pendants (1)
    (1) Triangular antler pendant
  (4) Fragments of points, awls, or other pointed objects
  (8) Fragmentary antler objects
  (5) Fragmentary bone objects
  (7) Cut bone detritus (Fig. 96, a-c)
  (1) Cut antler detritus
  (5) Adzed antler beams (Fig. 96, e-f)

Total number of artifacts (848)

Associated Materials. The following catalogue of associated materials recovered from Subcomponent VIIA represents a comparatively small sample of the tremendous quantities of detritus encountered. Only the figure for the salmon vertebrae represents all or nearly all of any of the categories encountered. Cryptocrystalline silica flakes and mammal bone detritus occurred in proportionately much larger quantities than the following figures actually indicate.

  Mammal bone detritus (at least 90% deer) ................................. 3,763
  Bird bone detritus .................................................................. 12
  Rodent bone detritus ................................................................ 2
  Salmon vertebrae .................................................................. 317
  Freshwater mussel shells ........................................................... 66
  Cryptocrystalline silica flakes ................................................. 6,148


Sample Faunal Remains from VIIA

  45KT28/B367. VIIA.

Square 11R2
66 - 72"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B764. VIIA.

Square 11R1
60 - 66"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1438. VIIA.

Square 11CL
48 - 54"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B891. VIIA.

Square 10R1 + 1' of 10R2
54 - 60"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1357. VIIA.

Square 9CL
42 - 48"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B898. VIIA.

Square 10R1 + 1' of 10R2
54 - 60"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B891. VIIA.

Square 11L1
48 - 54"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/1138. VIIA.

Square 11L1
42 - 48"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/1468. VIIA.

Square 11R1
54 - 60"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/1427. VIIA.

Square 10R1 + 1' of 10R2
42 - 48"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

  45KT28/B762. VIIA.

Square 11R1
60 - 66"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

  45KT28/B1309. VIIA.

Square 10CL
48 - 54"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

  45KT28/B1925. VIIA.

Square 11R1
Datum 12R1
54 - 60"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1136. VIIA.

Square 11R1
42 - 48"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1476. VIIA.

Square 11CL
42 - 48"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1228. VIIA.

Square 10CL
42 - 48"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1263. VIIA.

Square 10L1
42 - 48"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

SUBCOMPONENT VIIB

Stratigraphy and House Design. Subcomponent VIIB is a circular pit house which was excavated into Subcomponent VIIA and subsequently intruded by another pit house, Subcomponent VIIF (Figs. 5, 6, 18, 19, 20). The plan view of the house is presented in Figure 19, while Figures 5 and 20 provide cross-sections on the north-south and east-west axes of symmetry. The house was seventeen feet in diameter and excavated at least to a depth of 3.5 feet below the surface of the ground. The outer wall was vertical and terminated at a flat bench or shelf which encircled the entire interior of the dwelling. On the west and north sides of the house this bench averaged between six and seven feet in width, but on the south and east sides narrowed to scarcely over two feet. Near the edge of the bench on the west side of the house a post mold was encountered extending into the sterile sands of Stratum 4. It was two inches in diameter and extended eight inches below the surface of the bench (see Fig. 19, Subcomponent VIIB, Feature 1). It could not have been a post large enough to be a structural member, that is, a supporting column.

On the south side of the bench, where it became narrow, two pits, evidently used for storage, were excavated into the edge of the bench and the edge of the floor at the bottom of the [71/72] bench. They were approximately 2.5 feet in diameter, three feet deep, and extended into the bench wall at an angle of 45 degrees (see Fig. 19, Subcomponent VIIB, Features 2 and 3). In one, Feature 2, some fire-cracked rock and a chopper-like crushing implement were found (see stone tools of percussion, crushing implements). The other, designated Feature 3, contained nothing.

Artifact Assemblage. Subcomponent VIIB not only designates the house feature and directly associated artifacts, but also all of the artifacts recovered in the house fill, a deposit that extends about three feet above the floor before being truncated by Subcomponent VIIF. Few artifacts were actually found on or near the floor, diagnostic specimens being limited to a digging stick handle (Fig. 87) and a projectile point of Type Variant 6C. The vast majority of the artifacts were scattered throughout the fill and do not date from the period of actual house occupation. Because the fill is truncated by the floor of a pit house which was excavated to a depth of at least three feet during the Cayuse II period, it is reasonable to assume that the assemblage from the fill is representative of the Cayuse I Subphase.

Artifact Catalogue. A total of 285 artifacts were recovered from the subcomponent. Though a less varied assemblage than that of Subcomponent VIIA, the relative distribution of major artifact types is essentially the same.

Chipped stone artifacts (233)
  Stemmed projectile points (13)
    Type 5 (3)
      (1) Type Variant 5A
      (2) Type Variant 5B (Fig. 38, f)
    Type 6 (9)
      (1) Type Variant 6A (Fig. 39, d)
      (2) Type Variant 6C
      (1) Type Variant 6D (Fig. 39, ee)
      (1) Type Variant 6E
      (1) Type Variant 6F
      (2) Miscellaneous specimens
      (1) Points in the process of being manufactured
    (1) "Type" 7 (Fig. 40, hh)
  Triangular projectile points (6)
    Type 1 (6)
      (6) Type Variant 1C (Fig. 44, n)
  Pentagonal projectile points or knives (1)
    (1) Type 1 (Fig. 46, f)
  (12) Point and knife fragments
  Knives (32)
    (4) Type 1
    (1) Style 3 (Fig. 49, j)
    (1) Style 4 (Fig. 49, k)
    (1) Style 5
    (1) Style 6 (Fig. 50, c)
    (1) Style 8 (Fig. 50, g)
    (1) Style 10 (Fig. 51, a)
    (1) Form 7
    (21) Fragments
  Core tools (2)
    (2) Type 2 [72]
  [73] Scrapers (42)
    (7) Type 1
    Type 2 (7)
      (3) Type Variant 2C (Fig. 55, i, n-o)
      (4) Type Variant 2D
    Type 3 (2)
      (2) Type Variant 3B (Fig. 57, a)
    (7) Style 1 (Fig. 58, c)
    (2) Style 3
    (7) Fragments of end and side scrapers
    (10) Fragments of other scrapers
  Gravers (4)
    (1) Type 1
    (3) Style 1 (Fig. 59, g)
  (5) Drills and awls
  (1) Possible blade
  (115) Utilized flakes
(3) Miscellaneous flaked cobble tools
Stone tools of percussion
  (4) Hammerstones (1)
    (1) Style 3 (Fig. 68, d)
  Crushing implements (3)
    (3) Style 1
(2) Hopper mortars
(1) Abrasive
(1) Shaft straightener
(1) Yellow ocher
(2) Red ocher
Bone and Antler artifacts (36)
  Awls (11)
    (4) Type 1 (Figs. 76, d; 77)
    (2) Type 2 (Fig. 78, e, h)
    (5) Type 3 (Figs. 79, a; 80, a)
  (1) pin or needle (Fig. 82, g)
  Projectile points (2)
    (2) Type 1 (Fig. 85, a)
  (1) Digging stick handle (Fig. 87)
  (1) Spatulate scraper (Fig. 88, e)
  Pressure flaking tools (1)
    (1) Type I
  (1) Splinter scraper or flesher
  Beads and pendants (2)
    (2) Style 1
  (1) Fragment of awl, point, or other pointed object
  (3) Fragmentary antler artifacts
  (9) Fragmentary bone artifacts
  (1) Cut bone detritus
  (1) Cut antler detritus
  (1) Adzed antler beam
Shell artifacts of trade (2)
  (1) Type I [73]
  [74](1) Form 3 (Fig. 97, g)

Total number of artifacts (285)

Associated Materials. The following is a catalogue of flaking detritus and faunal remains recovered from Cultural Component VIIB. It is a representative sample only, the only nearly true numerical value being that for salmon vertebrae.

  Mammal bone detritus (at least 90% deer) ................................. 2,186
  Bird bone detritus ................................................................... 6
  Rodent bone detritus ................................................................ 1
  Salmon vertebrae ................................................................... 93
  Freshwater mussel shells .......................................................... 62
  Cryptocrystalline silica flakes ................................................. 1,979


Sample Faunal Remains from VIIB

  45KT28/B292. VIIB.

Square 12CL
South half
54 - 60"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1882. VIIB.

Square 13CL
South half
54 - 60"
Scale bar 1 cm.

Note the cut marks

Click on images to enlage

SUBCOMPONENT VIIC

Stratigraphy and House Design. Subcomponent V11C, like VIIB, is a pit house which was excavated into Subcomponent VIIA and in turn intruded by a much more recent structure, Subcomponent VIIH (see Figs. 18, 19, 21, 22). It is a subrectangular or ovate structure, 33 feet long and 24 feet wide, and was excavated to a depth in excess of 4.5 feet. Like Subcomponent VIIB, it possesses an encircling interior bench elevated to a height of three feet above the level of the house floor and varying from 3.5 to 4 feet in width. The floor area is level, being 28 feet long and 19 feet wide. At the southern end of the house, a large, deep post mold penetrates the floor a few inches from the edge of the bench. This post mold evidently marks the position of one of the major structural supports for the superstructure of the house (see Fig. 19, Feature 1). Although no other structural features were noted, it is possible that a diamond-shaped arrangement of four posts might be positioned so that three of them would lie outside the excavated area.

Nonstructural Features. Two features were recovered which have no apparent connection with the house structure itself. The first of these. Feature 2, consists

CENSORED AT THE REQUEST OF THE STATE

of either a partial burial or a burial remnant consisting of a fragmentary innominate, a few ribs, same phalanges, and a complete jaw all apparently of an adult individual. These were found in the center of the house floor, resting on the surface of a shallow depression which was approximately three inches deep. A small fire had been kindled just above the bones, and as a result some of the phalanges were partially charred. It is not known whether this represents a reburial just beneath the house floor, the intrusion of the house structure into an older burial, or possibly a combination of both. Profiles around the base of the house bench reveal that the house was cleaned of debris and reoccupied at least once, probably only a few years after it initially fell into disuse. It is therefore possible that the burial dates from the first occupation and its disturbance from the second occupation. A similar burial was reported from 45GR27, a site located near Moses Lake (Daugherty 1952: House Pit 1).

The other nonstructural feature is a small earth oven which was encountered in the house fill eight inches above the floor (Fig. 22, Feature 3). As no charred bone was found in association with it, this oven was probably used to cook vegetable food. It is probably not connected with the occupation of the house.

Artifact Assemblage. Subcomponent VIIC has been applied to all of the cultural materials on the house floor and in the first 1.5 feet of fill above the house floor. Most of the 112 artifacts encompassed in this assemblage were recovered on or within six inches of the floor itself. It is axiomatic that all of the artifacts in the assemblage do not date from the actual occupation of the house [74/75] and highly probable that all represent the Cayuse I period in as much as the house fill has been truncated by a more recent house floor.

Artifact Catalogue. It may be of interest to note that the ten incised pins or needles and three of the four Dentalia beads were among those artifacts actually found on the floor of the house.

Chipped stone artifacts (79)
  Stemmed projectile points (9)
    Type 5 (2)
      (1) Type Variant 5A
      (1) Type Variant 5C
    Type 6 (7)
      (1) Type Variant 6C
      (1) Type Variant 6F
      (5) Miscellaneous specimens
  Triangular projectile points (4)
    Type 1 (4)
      (4) Type Variant 1C
  Semi-triangular points or knives (1)
    (1) Type 2
  (11) Point or knife fragments
  Knives (12)
    (5) Type 1
    (1) Style 1
    (6) Fragments
  Core Tools (2)
    (2) Type 2
  Scrapers (21)
    (6) Type 1 (Fig. 54, n)
    Type 2 (6)
      (1) Type Variant 2C
      (5) Type Variant 2D
    (4) Style 1
    (2) Fragments of end and side scrapers
    (3) Fragments of other scrapers
  Gravers(1)
    (1) Type 1
  (2) Drills and awls
  (16) Utilized flakes
(2) Basalt spall scrapers (Fig. 64, a)
(1) Miscellaneous flaked cobble tool (Fig. 66, b)
Stone tools of percussion (3)
  Hammerstones (2)
    (1) Style 1 (
Fig. 67, e)
    (1) Style 3 (Fig; 68, a)
  Crushing implements (1)
    (1) Style 1
(3) Red ocher
Bone and antler artifacts (20)
  Awls (1) [75]
    [76] (1) Fragment
  (10) Pins or needles (Figs.
82, e-f; 83)
  Splitting wedges (1)
    (1)Type 1
  (1) Small bone hammer (Fig. 92, a)
  Beads and pendants (2)
    (1) Type 1
    (1) Form 1
    (1) Fragment of projectile point, composite harpoon tip, or barb
  (1) Fragment of point, awl, or other pointed object
  (1) Fragmentary bone object
  (1) Cut bone detritus
  (1) Cut antler detritus
Shell artifacts of trade (4)
  Ornaments (4)
    (4) Type 1 (Fig. 97, h)

Total number of artifacts (112)

Associated Materials. The following is a catalogue of flaking detritus and faunal remains recovered from Subcomponent VIIC. It represents but a sample of the total amount of such materials encountered during the subcomponent's excavation.

  Mammal bone detritus (at least 90% deer) ................................... 528
  Rodent bone detritus ............................................................... 1
  Salmon vertebrae .................................................................. 39
  Freshwater mussel shells .......................................................... 47
  Cryptocrystalline silica flakes ................................................... 759


Sample Faunal Remains from VIIC

  45KT28/B1040. VIIC.

Square 7CL
66 - 72"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1797. VIIC.

Square 4L2
60 - 66"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1799. VIIC.

Square 4L2
60 - 66"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1045. VIIC.

Square 5L2
48 - 54"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1256. VIIC.

Square 7L1
54 - 60"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

  45KT28/B1153. VIIC.

Square 7L1
48 - 54"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

  45KT28/B1212. VIIC.

Square 7L2
54 - 60"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

SUBCOMPONENT VIID

Stratigraphy and House design. Subcomponent VIID was located in the test excavation at House Pit 7, a small depression approximately 200 feet north of the main excavations at House Pit 15 (Fig. 4). Here a rather elaborate, apparently rectangular pit house had been excavated into Strata 3 and 4 from the lower portion of Stratum 5 (Figs. 23, 24). If the reconstruction presented in Figure 24 has been correctly inferred from the test area, the house was small and rectangular, being 19 feet long and 16 feet wide. It was excavated to a depth of not less than five feet and possessed an encircling interior bench 1.75 feet wide at a height of two feet above the floor level. At the south end of the floor there is a flat-bottomed, rectangular, sunken area approximately six inches deep. It is 7.5 feet long and 6.5 feet wide, and may have been designed as a cold trap or hearth area. It contained a single feature, a small pile of rocks some of which were fire cracked. However, no charcoal was found in association, and it is thus doubtful that the rocks are the remains of a hearth.


The excavation of the VIID pit house is the only example where intrusion into underlying strata encountered earlier cultural materials, in this case Cultural Component III. This means that, in the immediate vicinity of Pit House 7, earlier stone tools and waste was mixed with Cayuse period remains. The area was limited and therefore the intermixture was not great.


Artifact Assemblage. The 164 artifacts grouped under the Subcomponent VIID designation were recovered on or within a few inches of the house floor. The seven basalt spall scrapers were found in a cache located in the fill six inches above the bottom of the sunken hearth area or cold trap. [76]

[77] Artifact Catalogue.

Chipped stone artifacts (127)
  Stemmed projectile points (24)
    Type 5 (2)
      (1) Type Variant 5A (Fig. 38, b)
      (1) Type Variant 5B
    Type 6 (21)
      (6) Type Variant 6C (Fig. 39, m)
      (7) Type Variant 6E (Fig. 39, t)
      (1) Type Variant 6F
      (1) Type Variant 6G
      (6) Miscellaneous specimens (Fig. 39, kk)
    (1) "Type" 7 (Fig. 40, jj)
  Leaf-shaped projectile points (1)
    (1) Form 1 (Fig. 42, m)
  Triangular projectile points (4)
    Type 1 (4)
      (4) Type Variant 1C (Fig. 44, g)
  Semi-triangular points and knives (2)
    (2) Type 2
  (12) Point or knife fragments
  Knives (31)
    (9) Type 1 (Fig. 47, 1)
    (3) Style 1
    (1) Style 4
    (1) Style 7 (Fig. 50, e)
    (1) Style 9 (Fig. 50, i)
    (1) Miscellaneous specimens (Fig. 52, g)
    (15) Fragments
  Core tools (1)
    (1) Type 2
  Scrapers (30)
    (13) Type 1 (Fig. 54, e, g, m)
    Type 2 (7)
      (2) Type Variant 2C (Fig. 55, 1)
      (5) Type Variant 2D
    Type 3 (2)
      (2) Type Variant 3A (Fig. 56, f)
    (3) Style 1 (Fig. 58, a, d)
    (2) Style 3 (Fig. 56, j)
    (1) Fragments of end and side scrapers
    (2) Fragments of other scrapers
  Gravers (4)
    (2) Type 1
    (1) Style 1 (Fig. 59, f)
    (1) Form 1 (Fig. 59, j)
  (3) Drills and awls (Fig. 59, n)
  (15) Utilized flakes [77]
[78] (7) Basalt spall scrapers (Fig. 64, f)
(1) Miscellaneous flaked cobble tool (Fig. 66, g)
Stone tools of percussion (1)
  Hammerstones (1)
    (1) Style 1
(8) Red ocher
Bone and antler artifacts (19)
  Awls (2)
    (1) Type 1
    (1) Type 3 (Fig. 79, g)
  Composite harpoon valves (1)
    (1) Form 1 (Fig. 84, a)
  (1) Splinter scraper or flesher
  Pressure-flaking implements (8)
    (4) Type 1
    (3) Style 1 (Fig. 89, e)
    (1) Form 1 (Fig. 89, a)
  Antler splitting wedges (1)
    (1) Type 1
  (1) Fragment of point, harpoon tip, barb, etc.
  (1) Fragment of pointed object
  (2) Bone artifact fragments
  (2) Cut bone detritus
Shell artifacts of aboriginal trade (1)
  Shell ornaments (1)
    (1) Type 1

Total number of artifacts (164)


Sample Faunal Remains from VIID

  45KT28/B1043. VIID.

House Pit 7
Test Pit 12B
42 - 48"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1261. VIID.

House Pit 7
Test Pit 12B
54 - 60"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1505. VIID.

House Pit 7
Test Pit 12
36 - 42"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1338. VIID.

House Pit 7
Test Pit 12C
40 - 48"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage
  45KT28/B1398. VIID.

House Pit 7
Test Pit 12
30 - 36"
Scale bar 1 cm.
Click on images to enlage

SUBCOMPONENT VIIE

Stratigraphy. Subcomponent VIIE is located in the House Pit 7 excavation (Fig. 4) and designates a saucer-shaped paraconformity which occupies the depression created by Subcomponent VIID. The subcomponent designation is also applied to the artifacts resting on this surface and in the fill immediately above it.

There are two ways in which this saucer-shaped paraconformity may be interpreted. It might represent a natural fill line in the house depression left by Subcomponent VIID, or it could be the remains of a small saucer-shaped pithouse excavated into the depression marking Subcomponent VIID. Such structures occur at 45KT28 during the last part of the Cayuse III Subphase. If Subcomponent VIIE represents such a pit house, the three feet of fill which have accumulated over the house floor roust be interpreted as being largely dump from the construction of another structure, House Pit 5, a Cayuse III saucer-shaped house only a few feet to the north. In this event the fill above the supposed floor of VIIE and most of the artifacts which it contained would represent the Cayuse II and III Subphases.

Unfortunately, the test of House Pit 7 was not extensive enough to resolve these interpretations. As a result. Subcomponent VIIE cannot be assigned to any of the Cayuse subphases. It is dealt with as a definite subcomponent because it can be stratigraphically delimited, and because of its stratigraphic proximity to Subcomponent VIID. [78]

[79] Artifact Catalogue.

Chipped stone artifacts (32)
  Stemmed projectile points (5)
    Type 5 (2)
      (1) Type Variant 5B
      (1) Type Variant 5C (Fig. 38, m)
    Type 6 (3)
      (1) Type Variant 6C
      (1) Type Variant 6E
      (1) Type Variant 6F
  Triangular projectile points (1)
    (1) Form 2 (Fig. 44, u)
  (1) Point or knife fragment
  Knives (10)
    (3) Type 1
    (3) Style 1
    (4) Fragments
  Scrapers (3)
    (2) Type 1
    (1) Fragment
  Gravers (1)
    (1) Type 1
  (1) Drill or awl
  (10) Utilized flakes
(3) Basalt spall scrapers
Bone and antler artifacts (2)
  Bone awls (1)
    (1) Type 3
  Flaking implements (1)
    (1) Form 3

Total number of artifacts (37)

IDENTIFYING THE CAYUSE I SUBPHASE

The Cayuse I Subphase is defined most positively by the use or occurrence of pit houses which possess level floor areas encircled by vertical walls into which step-like benches have been carved. Other criteria must be chosen with caution because artifact types in general and projectile points types in particular apparently remain more or less stable throughout the Cayuse I and Cayuse II subphases.

The data from 45KT28 indicate that the relative frequencies of a few artifact types may have changed slightly at the end of the Cayuse I Subphase. These observations, summarized in the following statements, may be used as a starting point for defining other differences between the Cayuse I and Cayuse II subphases. (1) Between 15 and 20 percent of all projectile points are of the Quilomene Bar Base-Notched type during the Cayuse I Subphase. These figures are deflated to between 5 and 12 percent during the Cayuse II Subphase. (2) Between 70 and 80 percent of all stemmed projectile points are certain varieties of the Columbia Plateau Comer-Notched type (Type Variants 6C through 6G in addition to miscellaneous specimens). During the Cayuse II Subphase these figures are depressed by approximately 5 percent. (3) Type Variants 6A and 6B (Columbia [79/80] Plateau Corner-Notched points) account for less than 4 percent of the stemmed projectile points during the Cayuse I Subphase, but for between 7 and 12 percent of this category during the Cayuse II Subphase. (4) Biconical antler projectile points appear to be predominant during the Cayuse I Subphase. (5) Incised geometric designs on antler artifacts may be more common during the Cayuse I Subphase than in any other of the Cayuse subphases.

These statements, it must be emphasized, embody a low order of statistical probability and have to be checked against data from other sites in the Vantage locale before they can be accepted as truly definitive.

AGE AND DURATION OF THE CAYUSE I SUBPHASE

The beginning of the Cayuse I Subphase is coeval with the beginning of the Cayuse Phase itself. A C14 date of 1715 B.P. from the Vantage locale indicates that the Cayuse I Subphase was underway prior to 250 A.D., probably by the beginning of the Christian Era (American Antiquity 1962: Notes and News).

The duration and termination of the Cayuse I Subphase cannot be established with any precision without the aid of C14 dating. The deposits at 45KT28 give the impression that the Cayuse I period is of longer duration than any other of the Cayuse subphases. However, many extraneous factors such as differential rates of midden accumulation and shifting settlement patterns may be at work prejudicing this impression. In the absence of C14 dates, extreme caution must be exercised in assigning chronological limits to the termination of the Cayuse I Subphase and the beginning of the Cayuse II Subphase. On the basis of our present knowledge of the area, I would place this break between 600 and 1300 A.D. [80]

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LAST REVISED: 12 OCT 2018