45KT28/2086. Scraper, Type 2D, Component VIIA, Cayuse I Subphase.
 

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[111] THE ARTIFACTS

A total of 4,657 artifacts were recovered from the Sunset Creek Site. These are discussed and classified according to typological units in this section of the report. Complete component catalogues may be found in the main body of the report where the cultural components are dealt with separately.

CHIPPED STONE ARTIFACTS

Artifacts commonly or exclusively manufactured from cryptocrystalline silica, including occasional specimens made from obsidian and basalt which are clearly in the same technological tradition, are defined as chipped stone artifacts, and include projectile points, knives, core tools, scrapers, gravers, drills, utilized flakes, and micro blades. Other flaked implements are discussed under the headings of basalt spall scrapers, cobble scraping planes, miscellaneous flaked cobble tools, crushing implements, and notched net weights.

Members of the chipped stone category were by far the most numerous in every component and subcomponent of the site, accounting for 3,867 of the artifacts. As a group they occupy a place of importance not only because of their numbers, but also because they form most of the significant typological classes upon which present interpretations of Plateau culture history are based. This is particularly true of projectile points and knives, and accordingly the discussion of the chipped stone artifacts will begin with these. [111]

[112] Distribution of chipped stone artifacts.

VII: 

VI: 
V: 
V or IV: 
IV: 
III: 
II: 
I: 
und. 
und. 
und. 
A, 764; B, 233; C, 79; D, 127; E, 32; F, 63; G. 117; H, 254; I, 642; L, 111, undesignated, 788
193
113
34
26
191
8
61
25 (resting on I)
1 (below I)
5 (beach slough)
 

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Conventions
Abstract
Table of Contents
Letters
Figures & Tables
Acknowledgements
Introduction
Definitions
Setting
Cultural Record
 Introduction
 Vantage Phase
 Cold Springs
 Frenchman Spring
 
Quilomene Bar
 Cayuse Phase
  Characteristics
  Age
  Ethnography
  Salishan
  Stratigraphy
  Cayuse I
  Cayuse II
  Cayuse III
  Discussion
Summation
Models for
  Prehistory

Typology
Stone Artifacts
  Flaked Stone
  Percussion
  Ground Stone
Bone/Antler Tools
Shell Artifacts
Metal Artifacts
Raw Materials
Methodology
Rockshelters
References Cited

Stemmed Projectile Points. A total of 772 stemmed projectile points were recovered. They have been divided into 11 types and 11 forms, the relative distributions of which may be seen in Table 1. These implements were analyzed and categorized in the following manner.

Projectile point forms and point-like knife forms from the Vantage region are virtually impossible to separate into distinctive groups on a purely morphological basis. For example corner and base-notched points, which are particularly common in the area, grade imperceptibly from one form to another, and almost any given group may be divided into a countless number of discrete shapes which can be easily arranged to a continuum in such a fashion that points separated by 25 or more specimens will be quite different from one another, even though each specimen in the continuum practically duplicates its immediate neighbors. This continuum may be expanded until it includes triangular, side-notched, corner-notched, simple-stemmed, and leaf-shaped points. In fact, it might be described as an unbroken circle encompassing every common projectile-point form characteristic of the Middle and Upper Columbia.

There are three steps by which this continuum may be broken down into meaningful units. First, morphological forms arranged along the continuum must be plotted against their frequency, thus providing a means to assess the rate of morphological change within the continuum. In some sections of this continuum change is marked; other areas might be described as morphological plateaus in which there is little difference among large numbers of specimens. Such plateaus, or high points in the frequency distribution curve, suggest meaningful groups. When correlated with specific cultural components at a series of sites, the morphological plateaus may be segregated into meaningful, though often complicated, historical patterns. Finally, assemblages representing these plateaus take on a full measure of significance when viewed in the context of temporal-spatial clines and associated cultural assemblages.

In this three-dimensional structure of temporal, spatial, and morphological axes, it cannot be expected that perfect correlations will always be found. This is particularly true when dealing with comparatively subtle morphological changes on the level of the subphase. In such cases significant types or type variants may be similar enough so that a mistake in the manufacture of one will produce the other. Individual interpretation of group norms, innovation, and trade also tend to complicate the picture, especially in an area such as the Plateau which appears to have been host to many similar, but archaeologically distinct regional developments over at least the last 2,000 years of prehistory, and possibly for a much greater period of time.

Much of the morphological continuum of stemmed projectile points has been subdivided in an effort to analyze cultural relationships in the Plateau during the Cayuse Phase. This is true of Types 6 through 11, and of all the variants into which these types have been divided. On the other hand, Types 1 through 5, and the triangular, semi-triangular, and leaf-shaped points and knives all have been developed as tools for the analysis of earlier phases.

Because many descriptive terms applied to stemmed projectile points still are disputed, a few minimal definitions are suggested below. [112]

[113] Most of the terms used in this section of the report, such as concave, convex, plano-convex, straight, square, round, pointed, serrated, and the like, are generally accepted units of typological description. There remain, however, more equivocal terms such as barb, tang, notch, stem, base, and stem indentation. In this report these terms have been used consistently in relationship to the two major techniques of manufacturing stemmed points in the Vantage locate. The first of these major techniques was applied to stemmed and shouldered points, that is, points without barbs or notches. Stemmed and shouldered points were manufactured directly from flakes or crudely prepared blanks by a single-step flaking of the blank's entire periphery, in which the manufacture of the stem created both the point's shoulders and base. In this context the stem is defined as that portion of the projectile point which lies between the shoulders and the area (lying on the central axis of the point) farthest from the point's tip. The latter area is termed the point's base. Among such points stems may be parallel sided (Fig. 41, n-r) or contracting (Fig. 41, b-d). and their bases convex (Fig. 41, a, b, g, h), straight (flat) (Fig. 41. i, 1, n, o), or pointed (Fig, 41, d, x). Shoulders are said to be tanged if, at the shoulder, there is a noticeable, and evidently deliberately made projection (Fig. 41, i, j, o, v). In all cases, adjectives such as slightly and deeply are used to indicate the degree and intensity of trait occurrence.

In contrast to stemmed and shouldered points, side-notched points and stemmed and barbed points are manufactured on well-prepared triangular blanks which themselves could be utilized as projectile points. The final step in the process of manufacture is notching, not shaping. In stemmed and barbed points, the base of a finely made, triangular point blank is notched, producing barbs and a stem. It me notches are clearly placed in the base of the triangular blank, the finished product is termed a base-notched point (Fig. 38, a-e); if they are clearly at the corner, the completed specimen is a comer-notched point (Fig. 38, f, i-k, 1). Intermediate forms frequently occur. In all such points the stem is defined by the inner edges of the notches. It may be expanding (Fig. 38, 1-p), parallel sided (Fig. 38, c), or, on rare occasions, contracting. The base of stemmed and barbed points is defined as the basal remnant of the triangular blank which remains between the two notches. It may be concave, convex, straight (flat), or even pointed. When this portion of the point is indented with a small notch, the point may be described as stem indented (Fig, 38, a, l-q; Fig. 39, g, j, m, o, s-t). The terminology for side-notched points is analogous.



Stemmed Projectile Points

Type 1. Points with Slight Shoulders and Rudimentary Stems (Figs. 8, j; 11, m-o; 37, a-d).

   Number of specimens. 4.

   Material. One is basalt and derives from Cultural Component III; the others are cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens of this type have broad convex bases and weak, but distinct shoulders forming a stem nearly as broad as the point itself. They possess convex edges, thick lenticular cross sections, and parallel-sided or very slightly contracting stems. The edges of the stem of the basalt specimen which measures 4.8 x 1.95 x 0.9 cm., appear to be very slightly rubbed or ground. Two of the remaining specimens are complete. One, with a blunt tip, measures 6.0 x 2.8 x 0.9 cm., the other 5.0 x 2.1 x 1.05 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These points appear to have been manufactured by means of percussion, though pressure flaking may have been used in retouching the edges. The remnants of striking platforms appear at the bases of b and c in Figure 37, suggesting that some may have been manufactured on blades or blade-like flakes.

   Comments. To date, points of this type have been found in but small numbers in the Plateau. Swanson (1962a: 145, m-n) has reported two, one deriving from what he terms Frenchman Springs I, the other from Frenchman Springs III. Swanson estimates one about 4,000 years old, the other about 2,000. At Mamies Rockshelter, a site located where the Palouse and Snake rivers converge, similar specimens have been recovered from beneath Mazama ash and are associated with C-14 dates well in excess of 6,500 years. At 45KT28 one derives from Cultural Component II and three from Cultural Component III. Components roughly comparable in age with Swanson's Frenchman Springs I. [113]

[114] Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 3
  II: 1
   I: 8
  Comparable specimens.
Swanson 1962; 145, m-n


Type 2. Cold Springs Side-Notched Point (Fig. 37, p-q)

   Number of Specimens. 2.

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. Each of these points possesses convex edges, broad side notches, and a slightly convex base. Only one is complete, measuring 2.9 x 2.0 x 0.6 cm. The notches of this specimen are well defined and the base slightly serrated. The other is fragmentary, measuring *2.3 x 2.4 x 1.65 cm.; its side notches are shallow and poorly defined.

   Technique of manufacture. The fragmentary specimen seems wholly the product of percussion flaking, with the possible exception of retouching along the edges. The complete specimen may have been produced by pressure or percussion, or very possibly a combination of both.

   Comments. This point type takes its name from what Butler (1961:33-36) has termed the Cold Springs Horizon, the type site for which yielded a number of large side-notched points in deposits immediately overlying an unidentified volcanic ash (Shiner 1961). This horizon also occurs along the Snake River in a flood-plain site, 45FR32, and at Marmes Rockshelter at the mouth of the Palouse River (Fryxell and Daugherty 1962). Here it occurs directly overlying Mazama ash, and is estimated to date from around 4,000-5,000 B.P. (Daugherty 1963: personal communication). There is a C-I4 date of about 4200 B.P. associated with a similar component at 45YK5, a site on the Middle Columbia (Greengo 1963: personal communication). A single specimen was also reported for 45LN3, a site along Crab Creek in the Vantage area, where it was stratigraphically associated with early leaf-shaped points (Bryan 1955). At all these sites, associated artifacts have commonly included Cascade points and, at least in the case of Marmes Rockshelter, rudimentary stemmed points (see Type I). The material of manufacture is commonly basalt.

   The specimens from 45KT28 differ from those Just described in three ways. First, the morphological form is not quite the same. Second, they are made of cryptociystalline silica. And third, they are associated not only with leaf-shaped and ruidimentarily stemmed points, but also with rudimentary corner-notched and Rabbit Island Stemmed points. Because of their general form, their early occurrence at the site, and the fact that three other projectile points from the component were manufactured of basalt, we may still consider these points connected historically to the Cold Springs Phase.

[114] Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 1
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 1 [114]
  Comparable specimens.
Bryan 1955: Plate I, 1
Fryxell and Daugherty 1962: Fig. 6
Shiner 1961: P1. 356, 46b

   [115] The undesignated specimen derives from a slough directly adjacent to Cultural Component III, where it most probably found its origin. More remote possibilities of origin are limited to Cultural Components VI and VII.



Type 3. Rabbit Island Stemmed Point (Figs. 11, s; 13, c, l-m; 14, a-f; 37, e-k)

   Number of Specimens. 12

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and descriptions. The specimens in this group possess straight to slightly convex edges, square shoulders which occasionally are laterally tanged (Fig. 37, g), and stems which may contract to a pointed or rounded base, or which are parallel sided with a slightly convex base. The tip of one specimen has been removed and flaked into a chisel-like bit (Fig. 14, a). It measures 3,5 x 2.0 x 0.8 cm. Three other specimens were complete, measuring 3.1 x 1.3 x 0.5 cm., 3.7 x 1.65 x 0.3 cm., and 2.7 x 1.2 x 0.8 cm. The larger specimens are all fragmentary. The largest would probably have measured about 4.4 cm. in length and 2.5 cm. in width.

   Technique of manufacture. These points are either pressure flaked or very finely percussion flaked.

   Comments. The type site for these projectile points is located in the McNary Reservoir, a few miles downstream from the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers. Here the Rabbit Island Stemmed points occurred in association with burials which were overlain by a stratum of volcanic ash of undetermined age and origin. Cultural assemblages associated with Rabbit Island I and nearby pre-Mazama sites, such as Cold Springs and Hat Creek, suggest that the volcanic ash at Rabbit Island is not a primary deposit of Mazama or any other volcanic ash of greater age. On the other hand, this same assemblage, style of burial, and its stratigraphic occurrence beneath recent Plateau materials suggest that Rabbit Island 1 antedates the emergence of Plateau culture some 2,000 years ago. Based on the presence of a small number of Rabbit Island Stemmed points in early post-Mazama deposits along the Snake River (Richard Daugherty and Roger Nance 1963: personal communication), I would estimate their appearance in the southern Plateau at about 4,000 years ago. despite the occurrence of one such projectile point in the assemblage from Indian Well I (Butler 1961: Fig. 3A, c), which is estimated to date from between 8,000 and 11,000 years ago (Butler 1961; 1962a:77).

   In the Vantage region, five sites have been reported which have produced Rabbit Island components. The first of these is 45GR27, a site located near Moses Lake (Daugherty 1952). Two others, the Sahlkop and Schaake Village Sites near Vantage, have been reported by Swanson (1962a; 1962b), who assigns one to Frenchman Springs I and the other to Frenchman Springs III. These subphases are estimated by Swanson to have occurred between 4,000 and 2,000 years ago (1962a:31), A fourth site is 45KT28, where the Rabbit Island Stemmed point is the predominant type in Cultural Component V and also occurs in Cultural Components III and IV. The fifth site is located in the Ellensburg Canyon at the mouth of Umtanum Creek and has been reported by Rice (1969). These components together represent the Frenchman Springs phase and are estimated to date from between 3,000 and 4,000 years ago.

   As in the southern Plateau, in the Vantage locale Rabbit Island Stemmed points appear to be introduced on the heels of the Cold Springs Side-Notched Point. In as much as the latter type is perhaps as much as 1,000 years older in the southern Plateau than in the Vantage locale, it also is likely that Rabbit Island Stemmed points appear first in the south from whence they spread northward.

   Rabbit Island Stemmed points also may be historically connected with identical points now being recovered from western Washington. Formally reported specimens are few, being restricted to those from 45IS31b (Nelson 1962a) and 45SN100 (Nelson 1962b). There is but one specimen from 45IS31b. It is basalt and was associated with both triangular and leaf-shaped points (Bryan 1963:28-34). Five specimens have been recovered from 45SN100, where they are associated with large base- and corner-notched points (sec Type 6). They are the only chipped stone artifacts of basalt and appear to be trade items (Nelson 1961b:31-32). Although it is unlikely that these specimens exceed 2,500 years in age. private surface collections from along the Puget Sound Basin indicate that components must exist which are characterized almost entirely by cryptocrystalline and obsidian points comparable in size and [115/116] shape to those illustrated by Crabtree from the type site at Rabbit Island (1957: PI. IX, g-i). In addition, these points have come from Whidbey and Camano Islands in the form of many isolated surface finds. However, none of the many shore-side sites in the area have produced any comparable cryptocrystalline points or any evidence for a crypto-crystalline silica flaking industry. Therefore, associated sites must lie in a different relationship to the present shoreline and hence are older than any of the known shore-side sites, possibly in the magnitude of 2,000 to 4,000 years. This, as well as other evidence (see Leaf-shaped Points, Type 1 and Stemmed Points, Type 5), suggests a close developmental link between the Puget Sound Basin and either or both the fringes of the western Plateau and the Lower Columbia area.

   In the Vantage locale, Rabbit Island Stemmed points disappeared at about 800 B.C. and are replaced by Quilomene Bar Base-Notched points. However, a whole complex of stemmed points, including many which duplicate the Rabbit Island Stemmed, is reintroduced in very late prehistoric times (see Type 8). These late stemmed points are derived from The Dalles area (see Type 8 and the Cayuse III Subphase), where they occur continuously from about 800 A.D. to historic times (Caldwell 1956). Because we have, as yet, no adequately developed point sequence for The Dalles, it is not known if these late stemmed points are direct descendants of the Rabbit Island Stemmed points. Although they are almost certain to be ultimately related, the unknown nature of this link and the different historical functions they perform at different time levels along the Upper Columbia justify their discussion under two type headings.

   Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 0
  V: 7
V or IV: 3
 IV: 1
 III: 1
  II: 0
   I: 0

  Comparable specimens.
Crabtree 1957: PI. IX, g.l
Swanson 1962a: Fig. 36, e-f
Swanson 1962B: Fig. 4, a-d
Daugherty 1952: Fig. 14b, 6


Type 4. Rudimentary Comer-Notched Points (Figs. 11, p-r; 14, g; 37, l-o)

   Number of Specimens. 4

   Material. Two are of basalt, one is of obsidian, and one 8 cryptocrystalline silica. The obsidian and basalt specimens derive from Cultural Component III.

   Measurements and description. Morphologically the specimens in this group fall between the Rabbit Island Stemmed point (Type 3) and the large corner-notched points of Type Variant 5C. Thus they possess straight to slightly convex edges, shoulders which are square or nearly so, and a slightly expanding stem whose base is slightly concave or straight. The cross section is lenticular. Two of these specimens are complete. They measure 4.4 x 1.8 x 0.65 cm., and 5.0 x 2.9 x 0.5 cm., and possess width/length ratios, respectively of .409 and .580.

   Technique of manufacture. Pressure, percussion, or a combination of both techniques may have been used in forming these specimens.

   Comments. The specimens in this type represent the earliest manifestation of corner notching at the site and may represent a "morphological" reaction to the introduction of the Cold Springs Side-Notched Point (Type 2). A similar change in form occurred at Marmes Rockshelter in the southern Plateau between 4,000 and 5,000 years ago (Fryxell and Daugherty 1962: 21). [116]

   [117] Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 0
  V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 3
  II: 0
   I: 0

  Comparable specimens. None.


Type 5. Quilomene Bar Base-Notched Point (Figs. 14, h-i; 15, a-d; 38)

   Number of Specimens. 58

   Material. Fifty-seven are of cryptocrystalline silica and one, from Cultural Subcomponent VIIA, is of obsidian.

   Measurements and description. These points are large, with a thick, lenticular cross sections, straight or slightly convex edges, deep base or corner notches, and an expanding stem whose base is usually straight or slightly convex. They commonly range in length from 2.5 to 5.0 cm. and in width from 1.7 to 2.7 cm. More detailed measurements accompany the descriptions of the various type variants.

   Technique of manufacture. . First a triangular blank was prepared by means of pressure and/or percussion flaking. It was then notched at the corners or in the base, procedures which produced respectively, pointed and square barbs. This process is revealed by a few, presumably unfinished specimens such as that in Figure 38, e. After completion, the stem might be slightly indented (Fig. 38, a, l-q), a feature which occurred only during the Cayuse Phase.

   Comments. This point type is the identifying characteristic of the Quilomene Bar Phase, from whence it derives its name. It appears first, however, in association with Rabbit Island Stemmed points in Cultural Component V and persists throughout the Cayuse Phase down into historic times. During the Quilomene Bar Phase it is overwhelmingly predominant and nearly always base notched. During the Cayuse Phase it is more often corner notched and is of relatively minor importance, comprising about 15 percent of the total number of stemmed projectile points in Subcomponent VIIA and only about 2 percent in VIIH and VII-I (Table 1). These figures suggest a steady decline of the type during the Cayuse Phase.

   The designation of the specimens in this group as a type rests mainly upon their distribution at 45KT28. However, some comparable phase material appears to be present at Schaake Village (Swanson 1962b: Bed B3) and at Sam's Cave, near Steamboat Rock (Osborne:121-37). In addition, identical points are characteristic of a site on the Snoqualmie River in western Washington (Nelson 1962b). Their occurrence at this site suggests that a developmental link may exist between the point traditions along both flanks of the Cascade Mountains.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 16; B, 4; C, 1; D, 2; E, 2; F, 1; G, 2; H, 3; I, 8; L, 1; undesignated, 8
 VI: 7
  V: 2
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 1

  [118] Comparable specimens.
   Collier, et al. 1942: Pl 3, s, w
   Mills and Osborne 1952: Fig. 107, p-q
   Nelson 1962b: Fig. 9
   Osborne 1959: Pl. VI, s, t, z, ee, ff
   Swanson 1962a: Fig. 32, d
   Swanson 1962b; Fig. 4, e-f

   The undesignated specimen derives from a slough which probably originated from Cultural component VI. [117]


Type Variant 5A. (Figs. 14, i; 15, a-d;

   32, h; 38, a-e)

   Number of Specimens. 19

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The projectile points in this type variant are large and rugged in appearance. They possess thick, lenticular cross sections, straight edges, square barbs, and a slightly expanding stem whose base may be slightly concave, straight, or slightly convex. One specimen is stem indented, and another has slightly recurved edges.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.35-5.3
none
Width
2.3-3.2
none
Thickness
0.4-0.7
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. This type variant, the hallmark of the Quilomene Bar Phase, first appears in late Frenchman Springs time and remains a part of the cultural inventory until historic time.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; B, 1; C, 1; D, 1; H, 2; I, 2; undesignated, 2
 VI: 6
  V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 1

  Comparable specimens.
   Mills and Osborne 1952: Fig. 107, p-q
   Nelson 1962b: Fig.9, g-l
   Osborne 1959: PI. VI, ee-ff

   The undesignated specimen probably derives from Cultural Component VI.


Type Variant 5B. (Figs. 14, h; 15, m; 38, f-i)

   Number of Specimens. 14

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica. [118/119]

   Measurements and description. Though still very sturdy, the specimens in this group tend to be slightly smaller than those of Type Variant 5A. They have slightly convex edges, small rounded barbs, deep comer notches, and an expanding stem whose base is usually straight, though occasionally slightly concave or convex. The cross section is lenticular. None of the specimens has a basal indentation.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
3.0-4.8
3.2-3.4
Width
1.7-2.7
1.9-2.1
Thickness
0.4-0.7
0.5
 

   In addition, one specimen not included in summary above, measured 5.3 x 1.9 x 0.5 cm. It comes from the very top of Component VI and is transitional in form to Type 6 (Fig. 15, m).

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. The earliest of these specimens is late Frenchman Springs and may be considered morphologically intermediate between rudimentary corner-notched points (Type 4) and the fully developed Quilomene Bar Base-Notched (Type Variant 5A). After the development of Type Variant 5A, they must have played at best a minor role until late in the Quilomene Bar Phase at which time they were probably manufactured in greater numbers and with a variety of forms. During the Cayuse Phase they continued to be produced in small quantities.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 3; B, 3; D, 1; E, 1; I, 2; L, 1; Undesignated, 1
 VI: 1
  V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Nelson l962b: Fig. 9, a, b, d, e

Type Variant 5C. (Figs. 25, a-b, e; 38, l-p, r-s)

   Number of Specimens. 11

   Material. Cryptociystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this category possess straight edges, pointed or slightly rounded barbs, and a broad expanding stem whose base is convex. The cross section is lenticular and 7 of the 11 specimens possess stem indentations.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.7-5.0
2.7-3.3
Width
2.2-3.05
2.2-2.7
Thickness
0.4-0.7
0.5
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. The specimens in this group are associated with Cayuse I and II deposits. The sample is insufficient, however, to say that they do not occur during Cayuse III times.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 5; E, 1; F, 1; G, 1; H, 1; undesignated, 2
 VI:
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [119/120]

  Comparable specimens.
   None

   One of the undesignated specimens antedates Subcomponent VIIG; the other is slightly post VIIA, but still within the Cayuse I period.


Type Variant 5D (Figs. 25, d; 32, j; 38, j-k)

   Number of Specimens. 6

   Material. One, from VIIA, is of obsidian; the rest are cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight or slightly convex edges, rounded barbs which approach being little more than shoulders, and narrow, expanding stems whose bases are convex. The cross section is lenticular. One specimen possesses a base which, instead of being simply convex, forms a point.

   Only three of these specimens are complete. They measure 3.3 x 1.6 x 0.4 cm., 4.0 x 2.4 x 0.6 cm., and 3.6 x 2.5 x 0.4 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. The specimens in this group are associated with Cayuse I and II deposits. The sample is insufficient, however, to say that they do not occur during Cayuse III times.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 3; G, 1; undesignated, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

   One of the undesignated specimens antedates VIIJ, being either Cayuse I or II in age. The other postdates VIIG and is Cayuse II in age.


Type 5. Quilomene Bar Base-Notched. Miscellaneous Specimens. (Figs. 25, c; 38, q, t-v)

   Number of Specimens. 8

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This group is composed of miscellaneous specimens, most of which are pictured in Figure 38, where each is accompanied by its provenience. All fall within the general type designation and have lenticular cross sections.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None. [120/121]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 3; I, 4; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Type 6. Columbia Plateau Corner-Notched Point (Fig. 39)

   Number of Specimens. 503

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess concave, straight, or slightly convex edges, barbs which are pointed, round, or square, and a stem which is usually slightly expanding, frequently parallel sided, and very occasionally contracting. The base of the stem is usually slightly convex, although it may also be flat, particularly if the stem is broad. Small notches in the base of the stem are quite common in the larger specimens, but rare in the smaller ones. Commonly the specimens of this group vary from 2.0 to 4.0 cm. in length and 1.5 to 2.5 cm. in width.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens were manufactured from small flakes by means of pressure flaking. In almost every case a small, triangular blank was prepared and then notched at the corners or in the base.

   Comments. The type designation "Columbia Plateau Comer-Notched" is a proposed modification of the designation "Middle Columbia Basal-Notched" proposed by Osborne, Bryan, and Crabtree (1961). The designation "Columbia Plateau Corner-Notched" recognizes the wider area in which the type occurs and indicates that comer notching is more common than base notching.

   This type is the hallmark of the Cayuse Phase and the form most closely identified with the emergence of Plateau culture. It has been recovered in virtually every part of the Plateau as well as in adjacent territories to the south and east, and appears to be most abundant along the Middle Columbia, the Lower Snake River, and the lower half of the Upper Columbia. Although we lack the knowledge to make precise statements about the genesis and spread of the Columbia Plateau Comer-Notched, it presently appears to have originated somewhere in the western Plateau or the foothills of the Cascades which lie adjacent to that area. Age estimates for the beginning of the Cayuse Phase and introduction of the Columbia Plateau Corner-Notched in the western Plateau currently run at about 2,000 years, a figure based on geological evidence and scattered C-14 dates ranging from a few years B.C. to about 500 A.D. For the Vantage Region there is a published date of A.D. 250 (American Antiquity 1962: Notes and News).

   This type has been subdivided into nine type variants whose distributions are presented in Table 2. Type Variants 6A and 6B appear to be of particular importance in the Vantage Region. They were evidently introduced at the beginning of the Cayuse II Subphase, after which they became exceedingly abundant in the Cayuse III Subphase, where together they constitute about 55 percent of Type 6 projectile points. The remaining type variants are distributed in an inverse proportion to these figures and appear to be present throughout the Cayuse Phase. [121/122]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 81; B, 9; C, 7; D, 21; E, 3; F, 12; G, 18; H, 54; I, 198; L, 13; und.. 87
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

Comparable specimens.
   Butler 1962a: Fig. 9, h; Fig. 19, b-c
   Caldwell 1953-54: 18
   Caldwell 1956: Type IA
   Clinehens 1960: 55, a; 70, h. f
   Collier et al., 1942: Pl. 3, j, t, v, x
   Cressman 1960: Types IN, UK, IIIA, IIIB, HID, HIE, IIIF, IIIG, III-I
   Daugherty 1952: Fig. 114b, 11
   Gunkel 1961: Fig. 25, d, i, aa, bb, ii-pp
   Gruhn 1961a; Fig.2, j, 1
   Grohn 1961b: Pl. 14, v-x; Pl. 36, 1
 

Comparable specimens.
   Lee 1955: Fig. 2, 3-4, 6-8, 31
   Mallory 1962: Pl. IX, a-b
   Miller 1959: Types 6-8
   Mills and Osborne 1952: Fig. 107, o, bb
   Osborne 1956-57: PL A-13, 3, 4
   Osborne 1957: Pl. 14a, 19-22, P1. 22, 27, 33, 34
   Osborne, Bryan and Crabtree 1961: Pl. 50b, 71, 76, 75; Pl. 56, middle row
   Osborne and Crabtree 1961: Fig. 7b, 2-17; Fig. 9a, 225
   Osborne, Crabtree and Bryan 1952: Fig. 110, k, v
   Osborne and Shiner 1951: Pl. 1, 27
   Shiner 1953: Fig. 2
   Shiner 1961: Pl. 46a, top row
   Smith 1910: PL II, e
   Sprague 1960: Figs. 14, 16
   Strong et al., 1930: Pl. III, j, t, x
   Swanson 1962a: Fig. 34, d, f

Type Variant 6A. (Figs. 32, o-r; 39, a-h)

   Number of Specimens. 162

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens of this type variant are characteristically small with straight slightly concave edges, and a very slightly expanding or parallel-sided stem whose base is rarely indented. Twenty-five specimens possessed convex edges. Barbs were usually pointed or rounded, being square in only five instances. The specimens in this group are on the border between corner-notched and base-notched points, with a few specimens failing clearly into each category.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.45-2.9
1.9-2.5
Width
1.1-2.2
1.3-1.9
Thickness
0.2-0.6
0.3 [122/123]
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. Because this type variant has never been treated as a specific variant elsewhere in the Plateau, it is not possible to comment on its precise distribution within the whole Plateau. At 45KT28 a few forms derive from the Cayuse I Subphase. These may be fortuitous accidents resulting from the manufacture of similar forms during the same period. During the Cayuse II Subphase they appear as a definite tradition, and in the Cayuse III period become quite common, accounting for about 55 percent of all Type 6 points manufactured and 30 percent of all stemmed points.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A. 6; B. 1; F. 2; G, 4; H. 25; I, 103; L, 5; undesignated, 16
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

Comparable specimens.
   See major type description.
 
MATCHING OPAL POINTS OF TYPE 6A FROM VIIH. LEFT: 364, 2.5 x 1.7 x 0.35 cm; RIGHT: 45, 2.4 x 1.4 x 0.3 cm.

Type Variant 6B. (Figs. 32, k-n; 39, p-r)

   Number of Specimens. 22

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group are short, wide points which are symmetrical and very well made. Their edges vary from straight to slightly convex. The barbs, which commonly do not equal the length of the stem, usually are pointed or slightly rounded. Two, however, are square. In all cases the stem is expanding; its base may be straight or convex. Three specimens have stem indentations. The cross section is lenticular.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.6-3.0
1.9-2.6
Width
1.5-2.2
1.8-2.0
Thickness
0.2-0.5
0.3
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. The development of this type variant is analogous to that of Type Variant 6A. Of the two specimens recovered from Cayuse I deposits, one might justifiably be placed in Type Variant 6D. It is placed in this group in order to gaurd against too dogmatic a classification or interpretation. These two early specimens are probably fortuitous, accidents of form rather than part of a traditional pattern. Of the remaining 20 specimens, 5 are Cayuse II and 15 are Cayuse III. [122/123]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; G, 1; H, 3; I, 10; L, 1; undesignated, 5
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   See major type description.

Type Variant 6C. (Figs. 25, f-i; 32, a-e; 39, i-o)

   Number of Specimens. 78

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. On the average these specimens are some of the largest in Type 6. They are finely made and characterized by straight or slightly concave edges which are often finely serrated, pointed barbs which usually equal or exceed the stem length, and slightly expanding or, less frequently, parallel-sided stems. Forty-nine of the specimens were stem indented.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.7-4.5
2.5-3.2
Width
1.5-2.3
1.8-2.2
Thickness
0.2-0.5
0.3
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. Type Variant 6C is characteristic of the entire Cayuse Phase, though it is most common during the Cayuse I period.

   Through retouch and use, one of the specimens in this group has been converted into a spokeshave-like scraper with a broad, crescent-like indention along one edge. The retouching is all unifacial, suggesting a scraping rather than cutting action.


45KT28/4044. Type 6C converted into a spokeshave. CC VII, above VIIG. 3.15 x 2.2 x 0.3 cm.

Use "view image" to enlarge.


 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 18; B, 2; C, 1; D, 6; E, I; P, 3; G, 2; H, 5; I, 25; undesignated, 15
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   See major type description.

Type Variant 6D. Eccentrics (Fig. 39, aa-ee)

   Number of Specimens. 6 [123/124]

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica. Specimens in this group are unique in that they have been deliberately manufactured with a single barb. To describe them in more detail is futile in as much as each has its own particular characteristics. Five of the six are illustrated in Figure 39 (aa-ee). The sixth specimen is much the same as ee. Note the lateral notches on specimens cc and dd.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. Lateral notches found on two specimens from VIIA suggest that they and the other eccentrics had a definite, and probably special function. Collectors have recovered a large number farther north from a large eddy in the Columbia River. Thus it is postulated that they were used in fishing, perhaps as toggling harpoon heads.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; B, 1; G. 1; undesignated, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   See major type description.

Type Variant 6E. (Figs. 25, j-k; 32, f-g; 39, s-w)

   Number of Specimens. 59

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens comprising this type variant possess straight or, less frequently, slightly concave edges. The barbs are always square in outline and may equal or nearly equal the length of the stem. The stems of seven specimens have been broken away. Of the remaining 51 specimens, 28 are stem indented.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.0-4.3
1.7-2.2
Width
1.4-2.8
2.4-2.6
Thickness
0.2-0.5
0.3
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. This type variant which Crabtree (1957) has termed the Middle Columbia Basal-Notched Point, occurs throughout the Cayuse Phase, being particularly common in the Cayuse I period. One of its members is the oldest specimen ascribed to the Cayuse Phase. It occurred in the uppermost portion of Stratum IV well above the latest Quilomene Bar subcomponents. Thus it is somewhat misleading, in terms of site utilization patterns, to have placed it in the Cayuse period. However, it would have been even more misleading to say that it was Quilomene Bar in its affinities. It is caught in the transition between these phases.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 15; B, 1; D. 7; E, 1; F, 1; H, 2; 1,11; L, 1; undesignated, 12
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [125/126]

  Comparable specimens.
   See major type description.

Type Variant 6F. (Fig. 39, x-y)

   Number of Specimens. 14

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group are comparatively large, having slightly convex edges, pointed barbs, and slightly expanding or parallel-sided stems. The length of the barbs usually equals that of the sterns, six of which are indented.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.8-3.7
none
Width
1.6-1.9
none
Thickness
0.3-04
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. This type variant is characteristic of the entire Cayuse Phase.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 5; B, 1; C, 1; D, 1; E, 1; F, 1; G, 1, I, 3; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   See major type description.

Type Variant 6G. (Fig. 39, z)

   Number of Specimens. 5

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. . Compared with other specimens in Type 6, these points are poorly made, having irregular edges, uneven, rounded barbs, and expanding stems, one of which is indented.

   Only two of these specimens are complete, measuring 3.05 x 1.8 x 0.3 cm., and 2.7 x 1.5 x 0.4 cm. One of the fragmentary specimens is 1.9 cm. in width and estimated to have been between 3.2 and 3.4 cm in length.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. These specimens, which occur throughout the Cayuse Phase, may be the product of working with inferior materials rather than an expression of purpose. The fact that they all are made of grainy silicified materials supports this conclusion. [126/127]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; D, 1; H, 1; I, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type 6. Columbia Plateau Corner-Notched. Miscellaneous Specimens and Fragments (Fig. 39, ff-ll)

   Number of Specimens. 148

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. About 60 of the specimens in this type variant are miscellaneous forms which do not readily fall into any of the other type variants. Seven of these are illustrated in Figure 39, and will give some idea of the range of forms which they represent The remaining specimens in this group are fragmentary and cannot be placed with certainty in any of the other type variants. Needless to say, the measurements given below are based only on the 60 deviant specimens.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.5-3.8
2.3-3.2
Width
1.2-3.0
1.4-2.2
Thickness
0.2-0.6
0.3-0.4
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 28; B, 2; C, 5; D, 6; F, 5; G, 8; H, 17; I, 42; L, 4; undesignated, 31
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   See major type description.

Type 6. Columbia Plateau Comer-Notched. Points in the Process of Being Manufactured

   Number of Specimens. 15

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. All the specimens in this group possess but a single base or corner notch, and all save one are fragmentary, with broken tips, fractures originating at the head of the notch, or both. In other respects they appear much the same as other specimens in Type 6, with straight or convex edges. Only one specimen [127/128] has concave edges, and none are as small as those in Type Variant 6A. It is probable that they were broken and discarded during the process of manufacture.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 4; B, 1; G, 1; H, 1; I, 2; L, 1; undesignated, 5
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.



Type 7. A Cluster of Stemmed Forms (Figs. 15, n; 40, hh-nn)

   Number of Specimens. 8

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. From illustrations of specimens in this group, it is evident that there is little consistency of form from one specimen to another. Some probably are knives, as they are quite large. Measurements and other vita accompany the illustrations.

   Technique of manufacture. The largest of these specimens is percussion flaked, while the others may be either or both pressure and percussion flaked.

   Comments. The specimens to this group do not form a type in the true sense of that term. They are a diverse aggregate of stemmed forms which have been termed a type only in order that the historical sequence of stemmed and shouldered projectile points will be made quite clear. The Frenchman Springs Phase is characterized by Rabbit Island Stemmed points (Type 3), while the Cayuse III Subphase is characterized by a morphologically more diverse group of stemmed and shouldered points (Type 8). In the intervening period of about 2,500 years, stemmed and shouldered points appear to be very rare, though never entirely absent “Type” 7 points are the exceptions to this general rule, isolated and unique projectile points which are not related to either of the stemmed and shouldered point traditions represented at the site (see Figs. 15, n; 37, e-k; 40, hh-nn; 41, a-z). The seven specimens in the "type" show no consistency among themselves, and only two, or 1.2 percent of the stemmed points from the Cayuse I and II Subphases, might be considered possible representatives of a stemmed and shouldered tradition linking the early and late occurrences of such points at 45KT28.

   Although specimens in this group have been given type status to demonstrate that Rabbit Island Stemmed points (Type 3) and the Upper Columbia Stemmed Complex (Type 8) are two quite different phenomena, historically unrelated in the Vantage locale, evidence at hand does not permit their confirmation as a type.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 4; B, 1; D, 1; F, 1
 VI: 1
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [128/129]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

   The specimen from Cultural Component VI derives from the most recent Quilomene Bar subcomponent at the House Pit 15 excavations.


Type 8. Upper Columbia Stemmed Complex (Figs. 32, x, jj; 41, a-z)

   Number of Specimens. 61

   Material. Six are basalt; 55 of cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens comprising this type vary considerably in size and specific form, though all are stemmed and shouldered. In general they possess straight or slightly convex edges; rounded, square, or tanged shoulders; and contracting or parallel-sided stems whose bases are pointed, square, or convex. The cross section is usually lenticular. Measurements and more detailed descriptions may be found by consulting the various type variants.

   Technique of manufacture. It is difficult to say whether pressure flaking, percussion flaking, or a combination of both techniques was utilized in manufacturing these specimens. The triangular blank technique of preparation may have been used on a few specimens, but direct manufacture from the raw flake was by far the preferred process.

   Comments. The Upper Columbia Stemmed Complex is a hodge-podge of simple stemmed and shouldered points characteristic of the Cayuse III Subphase, They are commonly associated, along the Upper Columbia, with small side-notched points (Type 10) and Wallula Rectangular-Stemmed points (Type Variant 8A). Similar associations have been reported from many sites in the Upper Columbia region and adjacent territories (Crabtree 1957; Massey and Nelson 1958; Osborne 1956-57, 1959: 45GR78 and 45GR91; Daugherty 1952: 45GR30; Mills and Osborne 1952: 45GR2; Miller 1959; and Collier, Hudson and Ford 1942: sites 2, 11, 22, 45, and 46).

   Much less information is available for the southern Plateau, the best and most clearly reported recent sequence being from Wakemap Mound (Caldwell 1956; Butler 1958a). Here we find that stemmed and shouldered forms were common during the entire occupation of the site which C14 dates indicate began about 900 AD. (Garner 1959; Crane and Griffin 1958a; 1958b). As the Cayuse III Subphase began between 1600 and 1700 AD., it is likely that the Upper Columbia Stemmed Complex is, at least in large part, a product of diffusion from the lower reaches of the Middle Columbia Region.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 16; I, 37; L, 2; undesignated, 6
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   See various type variants.

   The six. undesignated specimens derive from deposits most probably assignable to the Cayuse III Subphase.


Type Variant 8A (Fig. 41, a)

   Number of Specimens. 3

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica. [129/130]

   Measurements and description. In comparison with others in this type, these specimens are crudely made, possessing convex edges, well-defined shoulders, and slightly contracting steins whose bases are convex. All are frag¬mentary, measuring, respectively, 1.8, 1.8, and 1.6 cm. in width. The longest specimen would not have exceeded 3.5 cm. in length.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 1; I, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None

The undesignated specimen postdates Subcomponent VIIE and therefore roost probably represents the late Cayuse II or Cayuse III Subphase.


Type Variant 8B (Fig. 41, b-d)

   Number of Specimens. 5

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group possess straight edges, laterally tanged shoulders, and contracting stems whose bases are rounded. Two of the specimens are serrated.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.1-3.1
none
Width
1.3-2.1
1.3-1.7
Thickness
0.3-0.5
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. Morphologically these specimens duplicated many Rabbit Island Stemmed points (Type 3). However, associated materials and temporal distribution along the Upper Columbia appear to be quite different, approximately 2,500 years having elapsed between the end of the Frenchman Springs Phase and the beginning of the Cayuse III Subphase, the units with which they are respectively associated.

   A more detailed discussion may be found in the comments on "Type" 7 and Type 3.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 4, undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [130/131]

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: Pl. VII. cc
   Massey & Nelson 1958:55, 437 & 438; 57, 456
   Osborne 1959: Pl. V, p

Type Variant 8C (Fig. 41, e)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight edges, well-defined shoulders, and slightly contracting stems with square bases. They measure 2.4 x 1.3 x 0.7 cm., and 2.5 x 1.5 x 0.5 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [131/132]

  Comparable specimens.
   None

Type Variant 8D (Figs. 32, cc-dd; 41, f-h)

   Number of Specimens. 7

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight to slightly convex edges, rounded or square shoulders, and parallel-sided stems whose bases are convex. The cross section is lenticular.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.7-3.4
none
Width
1.1-1.3
none
Thickness
0.3-0.5
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 2; I, 3; undesignated, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: Pl 7, l
   Massey and Nelson 1958: 57, 604
   Mills and Osborne 1952: Fig. 107, u
   Osborn 1959: Pl. VI. aa

The two undesignated specimens may be assigned either to the top of the fill to Subcomponent VIIC or the floor level of Subcomponent VIIH. As two (other specimens in the type variant) derive from Subcomponent VIIH and the top of the fill in Subcomponent VIIC is normally quite barren of artifacts, it seems certain that the undesignated specimens derive from VIIH and are therefore tentatively assigned to the Cayuse III Subphase.


Type Variant 8E. (Figs. 32, ff-jj; 41, i-m)

   Number of Specimens. 14

   Material. Three are of basalt and 11 of cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group are long and narrow with convex edges, tanged or rounded shoulders, and parallel-sided or slightly expanding stems with convex bases. One specimen has been notched just above the shoulders (Fig. 41, k).

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.8-4.1
2.4-2.9
Width
0.5-1.2
0.7-1.0
Thickness
0.25-0.5
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None. [132-133]

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 5; 1, 7; L, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Massey and Nelson 1958:55, 353
   Crabtree 1957: Pl. XVII. 1

Type Variant 8F. (Fig. 41, n-p)

   Number of Specimens. 8

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group have straight edges, tanged shoulders, and parallel-sided stems whose bases are square. The stem of one specimen is slightly expanding.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.0-3.0
none
Width
1.0-1.6
none
Thickness
0.3-0.4
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 4; I, 4
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type Variant 8G. (Fig. 41, q-r)

   Number of Specimens. 5

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group are quite small, possessing straight edges, square shoulders, and parallel-sided or very slightly expanding stems whose bases are straight.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.4-1.7
none
Width
0.8-1.0
none
Thickness
0.3
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None. [133/134]

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 3; I, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Swanson 1962a: Fig. 34, e

   The undesignated specimen derives from an area disputed between the top of the fill in Subcomponent VIIC and the floor level of Subcomponent VIIH. As three other specimens derive from Subcomponent VIIH, and the fill in Subcomponent VIIC is barren of artifacts elsewhere, it seems almost certain that the undesignated specimen derives from VIIH and is therefore tentatively assigned to the Cayuse III Subphase.



Type 8. Upper Columbia Stemmed Complex. Miscellaneous Specimens (Fig.41, s-z)

   Number of Specimens. 15

   Material. Three are of basalt and 12 of cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. Although the specimens in this group do not duplicate any of the particular type variants in Type 8, they may nevertheless be considered a part of that type. The eight specimens illustrated in Figure 41 cover the general range of forms represented. More data accompany the illustrations.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 1; I, 13; L, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Type 9. Barbed Points with Open Corner Notches (Figs. 32, s-w; 40, a-gg)

   Number of Specimens. 62

   Material. One is of obsidian and 61 are cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The forms subsumed under this type designation are many and varied. They range from small points with almost no barbs at all to large specimens very similar to those in Type Variant 6C. The edges may be straight or convex; the cross section is lenticular. The notches are placed high on the corners and tend to produce short barbs which never equal the length of the stem.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.6-3.7
2.0-3.1
Width
0.7-2.4
0.9-1.7
Thickness
0.2-0.5
0.3-0.4
 

   [134/135] Technique of manufacture. These specimens were manufactured either by pressure flaking or a combination of pressure and percussion flaking. Triangular blanks were prepared first and then notched with the possible exception of some of the smaller specimens in Type Variant 9A. Stem indentations were added only in five instances. The workmanship was generally very fine.

   Comments. The introduction of this type corresponds with the introduction of late stemmed points (Type 8) as well as small side-notched points (Type 10) at the site and presumably the entire Vantage locale. Type Variant 9A (Wallula Rectangular-Stemmed) is abundantly represented elsewhere in the Plateau, especially along the Middle Columbia. Although little is known of this type variant's antiquity elsewhere in the Plateau, Caldwell's typology for Wakemap Mound suggests that it did not occur in The Dalles area until about 1200 A.D. (Caldwell 1956; Garner 1959). At 45KT28 it is one of the characteristic point types of the Cayuse III Subphase and is introduced ca. 1600 or 1700 A.D., suggesting northward diffusion along the Columbia River in late prehistoric times.

   Other type variants in this type are not represented by comparable traditions elsewhere in the Plateau and may indicate a morphological response in the manufacture of Type 6 points to the introduction of points of Type Variant 9A and Type 8.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 3; H. 13; I, 39; L, 2; undesignated. 5
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   See the various type variants.

   Of the five undesignated specimens, four are likely Cayuse III in age and one derives from either Cayuse I or II.


Type Variant 9A. Wallula Rectangular-Stemmed (Figs. 32, s-w; 40, a-t)

   Number of Specimens. 44

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens included in this class are exceedingly variable, and general description is difficult. The largest specimens commonly have straight edges, pointed barbs, and a slightly expanding stem whose base is straight, or as is more often the case, slightly convex. Because these points are longer they also tend to be wider. Consequently the notches are deeper, the barbs larger and more pronounced, but the stem of about the same size as those of many smaller specimens. The smallest specimens, on the other hand, tend to have convex edges, very small pointed barbs, and stems which are more frequently parallel-skied than expanding. A gradation exists between these extremes.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.0-3.7
2.0-3.1
Width
0.7-1.9
1.0-1.6
Thickness
0.2-0.5
0.3-0.4
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. The designation Wallula Rectangular-Stemmed has been adopted from the typology of Osborne, Bryan, and Crabtree (1961), who specify the following characteristics: straight or convex edges, corner notches, and a parallel sided or slightly expanding stem. Nothing is specified about the nature of shoulders or barbs, but illustrated specimens reveal both short, pointed barbs and square, sharp shoulders. Caldwell (1956: Type 2), in [135/136] applying this type designation to the projectile point assemblage from Wakemap Mound, illustrates only stemmed and shouldered varieties and relegates all slightly barbed variants of the type to new type designations. More recently, Pavesic, et al. (1964:11; Plate 1) have cited strongly barbed projectile points with concave edges as Wallula Rectangular-Stemmed points, while excluding some "stemmed lanceolate" projectile points (1964:16, Plate 1, m) which are very similar to the type specimens illustrated by Osborne, et al. (1961: Plate 56, top row).

   In this report, Wallula Rectangular-Stemmed points are defined by short, pointed barbs in association with straight or convex edges. The stemmed and shouldered points cited by Osborne, et al. (1961) and Caldwell (1956) are included in Type 8 because of their apparent relationships with other stemmed and shouldered forms. The barbed specimens which Pavesic, et al. (1964) have called Wallula Rectangular-Stemmed points, are included in Type Variant 6A and considered as a variant of the Columbia Plateau Corner-Notched point type.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 3; H, 11; I, 25; undesignated, 5
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: Pl. VII, e
   Collier et al., 1942: Pl. III, h
   Crabtree 1957: Pl. XVII, e-f
   Osborne 1957: Pl. 22, 24-25
   Osborne, Bryan & Crabtree 1961: Pl. 56, top row
   Osborne, Crabtree & Bryan 1952: Fig. 110, v
   Smith 1910: Fig. 1
   Strong, Schenck & Steward 1930: Pl. 14, n; Pl. 15, a-o, r-s, w-y, aa-bb
 
 45KT29/966 Type 9A VII-I, See Fig. 40, k.

   Of the five undesignated specimens, four are Cayuse III In age and one is either Cayuse I or II in age.


Type Variant 9B (Fig. 40, u-w)

   Number of Specimens. 5

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens comprising this type variant are very similar to those in Type Variant 6C. The notches, however, are set higher on the corners, so that these specimens possess concave edges, pointed barbs which do not equal the length of the stem, and a slightly expanding stem whose base is convex. The cross section is lenticular. One specimen is finely serrated.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.4-3.4
none
Width
1.5-2.4
1.5-1.9
Thickness
0.3-0.4
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None. [136/137]

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 5
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type Variant 9C (Fig. 40, x-y)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. Though longer, narrower, and cruder, these specimens are very much like those in Type Variant 7B. They possess straight to concave edges, short rounded barbs, and an expanding stem whose base is convex. They are somewhat irregular in outline. The cross section is lenticular. One measures 3.2 x 1.4 x 0.4 cm.; the other 3.6 x 1.5 x 0.3 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 1, L, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type Variant 9D (Fig. 40, z-bb)

   Number of Specimens. 5

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens have slightly convex edges, short pointed barbs, and slightly expanding stems whose bases are indented. The workmanship is fine; the cross section is lenticular.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.1-3.1
none
Width
1.2-1.7
1.5-1.9
Thickness
0.3-0.35
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None. [137/138]

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 2; I, 3
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type Variant 9E (Fig. 40, cc-ee)

   Number of Specimens. 4

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group are very similar to those in Type Variant 6A, whose long barbs they lack. They possess convex edges, short pointed barbs, and an expanding stem whose base in convex.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.6-1.9
none
Width
0.9-1.25
1.2-1.25
Thickness
0.3-0.4
0.3
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 3; L, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type Variant 9F. (Fig. 40. ff-gg)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group possess straight edges, abrupt shoulders, and expanding stems whose bases are straight. One is serrated; it measures 2.4 x 1.5 x 0.3 cm. The other specimen measures 2.5 x 1.7 x 0.3 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None. [138/139]

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Type 10. Columbia Plateau Side-Notched Point (Figs. 32, kk-oo; 41, aa-nn)

   Number of Specimens. 35

   Material. Two are of obsidian and 33 of cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight or slightly convex edges, small narrow side notches, and bases which are usually straight or concave, but occasionally slightly convex. Only one specimen has a base indentation (Fig. 41, ii).

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.4-3.0
none
Width
0.9-1.8
1.1-1.5
Thickness
0.2-0.5
0.3
 

   Technique of manufacture. A triangular blank was first prepared by means of pressure flaking. It was then notched along the edges, usually near the base.

   Comments. The distribution of this type throughout the Plateau is exceedingly important to the historical reconstruction of late prehistoric times and in terms of its fit with ethnographic information. In Kootenai County, Idaho, at a total of 30 sites reported by Miller (1959), Columbia Plateau Side-Notched points comprised about 27 percent of the total number of stemmed and unstemmed points and 31 percent of all stemmed points recovered. Although many objects of historic trade were recovered, the sites from which they came were not specifically recorded, so it is difficult to estimate the age of these points in the area. However, Miller does mention that none of the sites possess much depth and that 10 (one-third of the total number) were reported ethnographically. Thus it is likely that side-notched points of this type are not old in the area, a fact which would agree with present knowledge of other portions of the Plateau, where they are known to be late prehistoric and historic in age.

   Moving westward into Washington, we find that Type 10 comprises about 51 percent (38 out of 75 specimens) of the stemmed projectile points at Fort Spokane, a predominately historic site (Combes 1964:20-22). Along the Upper Columbia between Grand Coulee Dam and the Canadian border, it comprised about 9 percent of the stemmed points from 22 reported sites (Collier, et al., 1942). Of these 22 sites, 10 may contain assemblages which antedate the introduction of Columbia Plateau Side-Notched points; thus 9 percent is a minimal distribution frequency for this portion of the Upper Columbia.

   Coming southward we find only two large samples of projectile points. At 45GR30, on the shore of Moses Lake, out of 151 points in one house pit, 14 percent were side notched (Daugherty 1952). At 45KT28 small side-notched points account for about 7 percent of all stemmed points during the Cayuse III Subphase. Other sites in the Sun Lakes-Chief Joseph locale with numbers of projectile points less than 20 have produced from 6 to 60 percent small side-notched points. Sites such as these include 45GR91 (Osborne 1959), 45GR94 (Osborne 1959; Gallagher 1959), 45GR2 (Mills and Osborne 1952), and 45KT13 (Osborne 1956-57).

   In the southern Plateau this type is much more difficult to quantify as it does not occur in large assemblages. One of the largest collections is from 35WS5 located in the lower Dalles Reservoir (Shiner 1953). Out of 441 stemmed and nonstemmed triangular points, one group, consisting of all unmodified triangular points, accounted for nearly 5 percent of the points. Out of these 21 points, three are illustrated and two of these are side [139/140] notched. Consequently 1 and 4 percent might serve as the best possible limiting figures. At other large sites in The Dalles locale such as Five-Mile Rapids and Wakemap Mound the small side-notched point seems to be nonexistent or practically so (Cressman 1960; Caldwell 1956).

   It is more difficult to appraise the significance of late prehistoric projectile point assemblages along the Snake River because they are few in number, small in size, and frequently associated with burial sites. Excavations in the upper McNary Reservoir (Osborne 1957; Shiner 1961), and at Fish Hook Island (Lelander 1958; Combes 1964: personal communication), Windust Cave (Rice 1965), Three Springs Bar (Daugherty 1964: personal communica¬tion), and the mouth of the Tucannon River (C. M. Nelson 1965), indicate that small side-notched points were common along the lower Snake River in late prehistoric times. Moreover, a recent survey of the Asotin Reservoir (C. M. Nelson and D. G. Rice 1965: personal communication) demonstrates that Columbia Plateau Side-Notched points were abundant in late prehistoric and early historic times along the Snake River between the mouths of the Clear-water and Grande Ronde rivers. Recent work in Hells Canyon (Pavesic, et al, 1964) has also revealed small numbers of this projectile point type at a late prehistoric site near Homestead, Oregon.

   From data now at hand it would seem that Columbia Plateau Side-Notched points are most abundant In the eastern and northern portions of the Columbia Plateau, and become increasingly less abundant westward and southward along the Snake and Columbia rivers. This fact itself suggests that the type originated in the eastern or northeastern Plateau or in the adjacent area of the High Plains where similar projectile points were abundant in the late prehistoric period. The hypothesis that Columbia Plateau Side-Notched points were introduced from the Plains is supported by their abundance in Nez Perce territory (Swanson, et al.. 1959; Pavesic, et al., 1964; C. M. Nelson and D. G. Rice 1965: personal communication) and by their presence in Flathead territory (White 1952; 1959; Malouf 1956; Griswold 1953; 1954; Griswold and Larom 1954), for these are the two groups which would most likely be intermediaries between the Plains and the Plateau. This hypothesis also fits well with ethnographic facts. Teit (1930:108-15, 248-54, 349-59), for example, expresses the belief that tribes along the eastern periphery of the Columbia Plateau, such as the Cour d’Alene, Flathead, and Nez Perce, were in frequent contact with the Plains after the introduction of the horse, while tribes in the western and central Plateau were engaged in a great deal of local interchange but had little direct contact with the Plains.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 4; I, 27; L, 2; undesignated, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

   Comparable specimens.
     Borden 1956: Plate V. 8-16
     Bry an 1955: Plate I, d
     Clinehens 1960: 55, c-e; 70, bb
     Collier et al., 1942: Plate II, i-o
     Crabtree 1957: Plate XVII, g.i
     Daugherty 1952: Fig. 114, 12
     Daugherty 1956b: Plate II, c-d
     Gruhn 1961b: Plate 37, d-e
     Gunkel 1961: Fig. 25, o-r
     Lelander 1958: Fig. 5, 85-96; Fig. 24, 151-182; Fig. 30, 203; Fig. 32, 219-224; Fig. 57, 500

  Comparable specimens.
   Mallory 1962: Plate IV, i
   Malouf 1956: Plate II, top row b
   Massey and Nelson 1958: 54, 79-80
   Mills and Osborne 1952: Fig. 107, m-n, t-y
   Osborne 1956-57: A-13, 24 [140/141]
   Osborne 1957: Plate 22, 23
   Osborne 1959: Plate II. c-d; Plate VI, hh; Plate VH, h-i
   Osborne and Crabtree 1961: Fig. 7, 10. 18; Fig. 9, 245
   Osborne. Crabtree, and Bryan 1952: Fig. 110, h-i
   Osborne and Shiner 1951: Plate la, 63-64
   Shiner 1952: Fig. 105,47
   Smith 1910: Plate II, b-d
   Sprague 1960: Fig. 18
   Strong et al., 1930: Plate 12,1
   Swanson 1962a: Fig. 20, j
   Warren 1959: Plate 5. n"-p"
   Weld and Weld 1962: Fig. 10


Type Variant 10A (Fig. 41, jj-kk)

   Number of Specimens. 4

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group possess straight edges and pronouncedly concave bases. The notches are set a third of the way between the base and the point tip, and are thus considerably farther from the base than those of the specimens comprising Type Variant 10C. Only three of the specimens are complete, measuring 2.3 x 1.2 x 0.5 cm., 2.9 x 1.2 x 0.3 cm., and 3.0 x 1.6 x 0.5 cm

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. The specimens in this type variant, as well as those in Type Variant 10B, occur at the site earlier than the more numerous Type Variant 10C. Therefore, they may represent a developmental period shortly after the first introduction of the type into the Vantage locale.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 3; I,1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None

Type Variant 10B (Fig. 41, ll-mm)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this type variant possess convex edges and straight bases. The notches are set from one-half to one-third of the way from the base to the point tip. These specimens measure 2.5 x 1.5 x 0.5 cm. and 1.7 x 1.3 x 0.4 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. See comments. Type Variant 10A. [141-142]

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

   The undesignated specimen was recovered in slough deriving from VIIH. It is thus Cayuse III in age.


Type Variant 10C (Figs. 32, kk-oo; 41, aa-ii)

   Number of Specimens. 27

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight to slightly convex edges. Sixteen have concave bases, four convex ones, and seven straight bases. One possesses a small basal indentation. The notches to all these specimens are close to the base.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.4-2.9
none
Width
0.9-1.8
1.1-1.5
Thickness
0.2-0.5
0.3
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. See comments, Type Variant 10A.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 24; L, 2; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   See major type description.

   The undesignated specimen derives from 6-12" below the surface of the midden in House Pit 7. It is probably Cayuse III in age.



Type Variant 10D (Fig. 41; nn)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight edges and very poorly defined side notches situated close to the base. The base of one is slightly convex; that of the other slightly concave. These specimens measure 2.3 x 1.4 x 0.4 cm., and 2.0 x 1.4 x 0.4 cm. [142-143]

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type 11. Modified Columbia Plateau Corner-Notched II (Fig. 41, oo-rr)

   Number of Specimens. 12

   Material. One is basalt and the remainder are cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The points in this type possess straight or slightly convex edges, well-defined shoulders which approach being barbs, and noticeably expanding stems. Stem bases may be concave, straight, or convex. Measurements and more detailed descriptions are given under the various type variants.

   Technique of manufacture. A triangular blank was prepared by means of either pressure or percussion flaking or a combination of both. Then the corner was removed or notched in such a way as to produce specimens midway between being true side-notched and true corner notched-points.

   Comments. The points in this type are morphologically similar to both side-notched and corner-notched specimens. Because their distribution correlates with the introduction of Type 10 (Columbia Plateau Side-Notched), they are thought to represent a morphological shift in the manufacture of some corner-notched points in which the notches are moved higher on the corners and even up onto the sides of the triangular blank which forms the basic unit upon which all late points are manufactured.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 2; I, 9; und., 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   See various type variants.

   The undesignated specimen occurred in the fill above Subcomponent VIIG, and is thus Cayuse II or III in age.


Type Variant 11A (Fig. 41, oo-pp)

   Number of Specimens. 10

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica. [143-144]

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess slightly convex edges, well-defined shoulders which sometimes approach being barbs, and an expanding stem whose base is concave or convex.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.0-3.0
none
Width
1.0-1.3
none
Thickness
0.3-0.5
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 2; I, 7; und., 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Massey and Nelson 1958: 59, 156
   Osborne & Crabtree 1961: Fig. 9, 386, 225, 325
   Shiner 1953: Fig. 2, row 3, a, g
   Swanson 1958: Fig. 6 k
   Osborne, Bryan, and Crabtree 1961; Plate 52, 11; Plate 54, 2
   The specimens cited above do not duplicate those recovered from 45KT28 but will give some idea of the range of morphological forms which might be included in this type.

   The undesignated specimen occurred in deposits which postdate Subcomponent VIIG and is thus Cayuse II or III in age.


Type Variant 11B (Fig. 41, qq-rr)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess convex edges, well-pronounced shoulders, and an expanding stem that is convex. They are small, short points measuring 2.2 x 1.0 x 0.2 cm., and 2.3 x 1.1 z 0.3 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I:
 und.: 0 [144/145]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 1 (Fig. 42, a)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight edges, short barbs, and a contracting stem whose base is flat. Both are fragmentary, measuring *3.0 x 1.9 x 0.3 cm., and *1.6 x 1.7 x 0.4 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens were manufactured from triangular blanks by means of either pressure or percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, I; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 2 (Fig. 42, b-c)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight edges, laterally tanged shoulders, and slightly expanding stems whose convex bases are indented. They measure 2.6 x 0.9 x 0.3 cm., and 2.7 x 1.0 x 0.3 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens were pressure flaked from chips without the use of a triangular blank.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 3 (Fig. 42, d)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica. [145-146]

   Measurements and description. This specimen possesses concave edges, small pointed barbs, and a slightly expanding stem whose base is straight. The cross section is lenticular. This point measures *2.3 x 0.9 x 0.3 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen was manufactured by means of pressure flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 4 (Fig. 42, e-f)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group have somewhat irregular outlines suggestive of simple stemmed points (see Fig. 42, e-f). They measure *1.6 x 1.1 x 0.3 cm., and 2.0 x 0.95 x 0.2 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are pressure flaked.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: F, 1; I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 5 (Fig. 42. g)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This specimen has convex edges, square shoulders, and a parallel-sided stem whose base possesses an exceptionally deep indentation, forming what collectors often call a dog-eared point. This specimen measures 3.0 x 1.4 x 0.5 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen was pressure flaked.

   Comments. None. [146-147]

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 6 (Fig. 42, h)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This specimen has straight edges, short, pointed barbs, and a slightly expanding stem whose base is irregular. It measures 3.1 x 1.3 x 0.3 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen is the product of pressure flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 7 (Fig. 42, i)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This specimen has straight edges, short pointed barbs, and an expanding stem whose base is straight. It measures 4.0 x *1.2 x 0.3 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen was manufactured by notching a triangular blank which had been prepared by pressure flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

   This specimen antedates VIIG by an unknown amount [147-148]


Form 8 (Fig. 42, j)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Basalt.

   Measurements and description. This specimen has straight edges, and deep, broad side notches which intersect a trapezoidal base. The cross section is lenticular. This specimen is fragmentary, measuring *5.7 x 2.8 x 0.9 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. The specimen is the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: F, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

   This specimen derives from a storage pit associated with VIIF.


Form 9 (Fig. 42, k)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Blue and white quartzite.

   Measurements and description. This specimen has straight edges, deep side notches, and a convex base which intersects the notches directly. It measures 6.6 x 4.1 x 0.8 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. With the exception of the notches, this specimen is percussion flaked.

   Comments. The style and material of this specimen are unlike those of the Plateau and are more similar to artifacts from the Eastern Woodlands and the Mississippi River Valley. Perhaps it is an article of trade, as it was associated with other aboriginal articles of trade such as an abalone pendant from California.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 10 (Fig. 8, m)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica. [148-149]

   Measurements and description. This specimen is the fragment of a stemmed or lanceolate point. Although the base is not entirely there, it is likely that it possessed bilateral tanged shoulders and was about 4.0 cm. in length and 1.7 cm. in width.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen is finely pressure flaked.

   Comments. This specimen was found in deposits beneath the lenses containing Cultural Component I. However, because all of the cultural materials in these lenses have been redeposited, it does not follow that it is older. Because there was no evidence of stemmed points in Cultural Component I, it seems likely that this point base belongs to a later period, perhaps very early Frenchman Springs. The other possibility to consider is that it may have been related to the Lind Coulee assemblages found farther east (Daugherty 1956a). However, the geological deposits in which it is housed are probably not that old.

 

   Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 1 (below I)

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Form 11 (Fig. 8, e)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This specimen, the fragmentary base of a projectile point, is shouldered on one side and possibly notched on the other edge. Because it is badly shattered the precise form is difficult to determine, though it is likely it resembled a Pinto Basin point or was a stemmed lanceolate form of some kind. It measures *1.9 x *1.8 x *0.35 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen appears to be percussion flaked.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 1
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Leaf-shaped projectile points

Leaf-shaped projectile points. This category, which contains 22 specimens, is important in the analysis of the Vantage and Frenchman Springs phase components. It contains all leaf-shaped forms which were probably projectile points, and excludes all those leaf-shaped forms which must have been used as knives. [149-150]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; D, 1, I, 3
 VI: 0
  V: 1
 IV: 2
 III: 6
  II: 3
   I: 4
 und.: 0

   
  


Type 1 (Fig. 43, a-j)

   Number of Specimens. 10

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens are large and variable in shape. One (Fig. 43, i), a slightly unsymmetrical basal fragment, is shouldered 2.2 and 3.3 cm. from its bluntly pointed base. These shoulders are very shallow, measuring about 1 mm., and may be the result of dulling the edges of the base prior to hafting. This specimen measures *4.3 x 2.8 x 0.8 cm. Another very similar specimen (Fig. 43, h), which also derives from Cultural Component I, is shouldered 2.0 cm. from its pointed base. Along this specimen's other edge there is a shallow notch the same distance from the base, but it may be nothing more than an accident. This specimen measures *3.8 x 2.9 x 0.9 cm. and, if complete, would have exceeded 6.5 cm. in length. The rest of the specimens have, to varying degrees, rounded bases and convex edges. Those marked a and b in Figure 43 are evidently a matched pair as they were found together and are of the same material. Specimen c in Figure 43 is almost semi-triangular and resembles a number of specimens recovered from Rabbit Island I (Crabtree 1957). Only two specimens in this group are complete. They measure 7.25 x 2.8 x 0.75 cm., and 6.5 x 2.5 x 0.85 cm. The latter is the smallest of the group and derives from Cultural Component V. The largest specimens would have come from Cultural Components I and II and would have measured up to 10 or 11 cm. in length and 3.7 to 4.0 cm. in width.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. Large leaf-shaped forms of this type were the predominant projectile point form in Cultural Components I and II and common in Cultural Component III. A single specimen derives from Cultural Component V. As a group these specimens resemble the early material from DjRi3, a site near Yale in the Fraser River Canyon of British Columbia (Boiden 1957; 1962). Here they derive from strata which date from 7500, 8100, and 9000 B.P. They are also similar to the Olcott material from the Puget Sound littoral (Butler 1961; Thomson 1961). At 4SKT28 this type appears to have been common during the Altithermal.

 

   Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 0
  V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 3
  II: 2
   I: 4
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Bordenl957: 11l, Fig. 3
   Borden 1962: Pl. 1
   Butler 1961: Fig. 3B
   Thompson 1961: Fig. 2

Style 1. (Fig. 43, k-p)

   Number of Specimens. 6

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica. [150-151]

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group are small and usually well made, but highly variable in outline. The cross section is lenticular with the exception of one specimen (Fig. 43, k) in which it is triangular. All of these specimens may be seen in Figure 43 (k-p). From k to o they measure, respectively, 6.2 x 1.9 x 1.1 cm., 5.5 x 1.7 x 0.75 cm., 5.0 x 2.3 x 0.7 cm., 4.1 x 2.3 x 0.9 cm., and 3.7 x 2.25 x 0.7 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. Some of the specimens in this group bear a superficial resemblance to the Cascade point as it is defined from the type collection from Indian Well I (Butler 1961). However, the specimens in this type are much more variable and not one of them duplicates a classic Cascade point. Thus there is no apparent connection between the two.

   It is possible that these specimens represent a simple reduction in size of earlier Type 1 points, which they follow in early Medithermal times. Such a reduction in size might logically accompany a change in weapons systems, such as the atlatl replacing the hand-thrown spear.

 

   Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 2
 III: 3
  II: 1
   I:0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 1. (Fig. 42, l-p)

   Number of Specimens. 6

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This group of miscellaneous forms from Cultural Component VII is illustrated in Figure 42 (l-p), where they are accompanied by the proper vital information.

   Technique of manufacture. All but one of the specimens, from Subcomponent VII-I, are pressure flaked. The latter is percussion flaked and may have served as a knife rather than a point

   Comments. These specimens all derive from Cultural Component VII, where they account for less than 1 percent of the projectile-point inventory. Therefore, they may be considered extraneous forms.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; D, 1; I, 3
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None


Triangle projectile points

Triangular projectile points. A total of 156 triangular points were recovered. A large percentage of these probably represent blanks prepared for the manufacture of base- and corner-notched points such as those in Types 6, 9, and 11. Others were undoubtedly used as points as the use of small basal indentations to two specimens indicates that they were hafted. Still others were probably utilized as knives. The specimen from Cultural Component III could not have been a point, but may have been used as a knife or scraper. One of the specimens from Cultural [151/152] Component VI is fairly small and probably used as a point or knife. The other is large and may be a blank for a Type 5 point.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 40; B, 6; C, 4; D, 4; E, 1; F, 2; G, 10; H, 10; I, 31; L, 2; undesignated, 43
 VI: 2
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 1
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

   
  

Type 1 (Fig. 44, a-s)

   Number of Specimens. 150

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The points in this type vary considerably in size, shape, and workmanship, Their edges vary from slightly concave, to straight, to slightly convex, the last two predominating. The comers of the base may be flared (Fig. 44, h), sharply pointed (Fig. 44, a), square (Fig. 44, m), or rounded (Fig. 44, i). The base itself is usually convex or straight with the exception of six specimens whose bases are concave. Two specimens, from VIIH and VII-I, possess small indentations in the center portion of the base. The cross section is usually lenticular, though a few specimens are plano-convex.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.6-5.3
2.1-3.6
Width
1.3-3.0
1.8-2.3
Thickness
0.2-0.7
0.3-0.5
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be pressure flaked.

   Comments. Although the specimens in this type, like triangular points in general, are important as a collateral development in the manufacture of stemmed and barbed projectile points, they are of relatively minor importance in history in terms of specific types and type variants. Thus only two type variants seem to be of significance in Cultural Component VII, where 98 percent of this type occurs.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 37; B, 6; C, 4; D, 4; F, 2; G, 10; H, 10;
I, 31; L, 2; undesignated, 42
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   See the various type variants.

Type Variant 1A (Figs. 25, n; 44, a-c)

   Number of Specimens. 9

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica. [152/153]

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess slightly concave to straight edges and straight to slightly convex bases whose comers are square or pointed. The cross section is lenticular.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.2-2.9
2.5-2.6
Width
1.8-2.6
1.8-2.1
Thickness
0.3-0.5
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be pressure flaked.

   Comments. The distribution of this type variant at 45KT28 suggests that it is most common during the Cayuse I Subphase.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 7; I, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Mills and Osbome 1952: Fig. 107, x

   The undesignated specimen predates VIIG by an undetermined amount and is thus associated with the Cayuse I or II Subphases.


Type Variant 1B (Fig. 44, d-f)

   Number of Specimens. 6

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight or slightly convex edges, sharply pointed comers, and concave bases. Only two of the six specimens are complete, measuring 1.8 x 1.3 x 0.4 cm., and 2.8 x 1.8 x 0.3 cm. The other specimens appear to fall well within this measurement range.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. This type variant appears to be characteristic of the Cayuse III period just as do pentagonal knives with concave bases. This suggests that concavity of the base in nonstemmed points and knives is characteristic of the late prehistoric in the Vantage locale.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 1; I, 4; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Collier et al., 1940: Plate II, e-h

   The undesignated specimen derives from me top 12 inches of fill above VIIG and is thus most probably Cayuse III in age. [153/154]


Type Valiant 1C (Fig. 44, g-s)

   Number of Specimens. 135

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this type variant may be described in much the same terms used to describe the type as a whole. They possess straight or convex edges and straight or convex bases whose corners may be rounded, flared, pointed, or square.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.6-5.3
2.1-3.6
Width
1.3-3.0
1.8-2.3
Thickness
0.2-0.7
0.3-0.5
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 30; B, 6; C, 4; D, 4; F, 2; G, 10; H, 9; I, 26; L, 2; undesignated, 40
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: Plate VIII, a, e
   Collier et al., 1942: Plate II, p-s
   Massey and Nelson 1958: 52, 280a; 53, 290
   Nelson 1962b: Fig. 10, e
   Shiner 1952: Fig. 105, 62, 64
   Shiner 1953: Fig. 2, top row, d
   Swanson 1962: Fig. 34, a-b

Form 1 (Fig. 44, t)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This specimen has straight edges and a straight base with square comers. The cross section is lenticular. Abnormally large, it measures 6.8 x 2.6 x 0.7 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen appears to be the product of pressure flaking.

   Comments. None. [154/155]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 2. (Fig. 44, u-v)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight edges and convex bases. Near the base, one edge is drawn out into a large square tang which gives these specimens an L-shape. Each is fragmentary, measuring *2.8 x 2.5 x 0.55cm., and *2.1 x 2.1 x 0.5 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be pressure flaked.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII:
 VI: A, 1; E, 1
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 3. (Fig. 44, w)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess slightly convex edges, and convex bases whose comers are square. They measure 4.0 x 2.9 x 0.6 cm., and 3.8 x 2.8 x 0.9 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be percussion flaked.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

   The undesignated specimen postdates Subcomponent VIIG. [155/156]


Form 4. (Fig. 44, x)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This specimen has straight edges and a flat, flaring base with sharp, tang-like comers. The cross section is thick and irregular, one edge being very blunt and battered. This specimen measures *3.3 x 2.0 x 0.75 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen is the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. This specimen was probably a knife or scraper rather than a projectile point.

 

   Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 1
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Semi-triangular projectile points and knives

   Semi-triangular projectile points and knives (Fig. 45). A total of 50 semi-triangular knives and points were recovered from 45KT28. Size, cross section, and the frequency of blunt tips suggest that the majority were used as knives, particularly those specimens in Type 1. However, many of the specimens in Type 2 and Forms 1 and 2 may have been utilized as points.

   The term semi-triangular has been adopted to describe forms which lie morphologically between being triangular and lanceolate in outline.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 13; C, 1; D, 2; G. 1; H, 4; I, 20; L, 1; undesignated. 5
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type I (Fig. 45, a-d)

   Number of Specimens. 22

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess convex edges, straight or convex bases, and square or rounded corners. The cross section is lenticular.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
3.1-5.4
none
Width
1.8-3.6
2.4-2.8
Thickness
0.5-0.9
0.6-0.8
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the products of percussion flaking. [156/157]

   Comments. Though this type occurs throughout the Cayuse Phase, it is particularly common during the Cayuse III Subphase. The specimen from Cultural Component VI, it should be noted, is on the borderline between being of this type and Type 2, and may not represent an extension of Type 1 into the Quilomene Bar Phase (Fig. 15, h).

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 3; H, 3; I, 13; undesignated, 2
 VI: 1
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: Plate VIII, b
   Collier et al., 1942: Plate I, a-b
   Gruhn 1961a: Fig. 2, a
   Gunkel 1961: Fig.35, d
   Massey and Nelson 1958: 50, 630

   One of the undesignated specimens is a member of the oldest assemblage from Cultural Component VII. Together with a stemmed point (Type Variant 6E) and a knife (Type 1), this specimen was found in the top three inches of Stratum III, overlying Quilomene Bar Phase subcomponents.


Type 2 (Figs. 11, h; 15, g; 45, e-h)

   Number of Specimens. 19

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight or convex edges and convex bases whose corners may be square or rounded. The outline is often irregular. The cross section is lenticular. Only two of these specimens are complete, measuring 4.1 x 1.5 x 0.3 cm., and 2.2 x 1.8 x 0.35 cm. The fragmentary specimens range in width from 2.0 to 2.3 cm. and would have mostly fallen between 3.8 and 4.5 cm in length.

   Technique of manufacture. Both pressure and percussion flaking were evidently used in the manufacture of these specimens.

   Comments. This type must rest upon its distribution within the deposits at 45KT28 rather than on comparative material. This may in part be due to the fact that similar specimens from other sites in the Plateau have been grouped under triangular points or knives and then simply not illustrated.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 9; C. 1; D, 2; G, 1; H, I; 1, 2; undesignated, 1
 VI: 1
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 1
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [157/158]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 1 (Fig. 45, m-n)

   Number of Specimens. 4

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens are long and narrow, possessing slightly convex edges, straight bases, and rounded or square corners

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
4.4-6.1
none
Width
1.5-2.4
none
Thickness
0.5-0.8
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the products of either or both pressure flaking and percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; I, 1; undesignated, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

   Of the two undesignated specimens, one postdates Subcomponent VIIA and antedates VIIH, white the other antedates Subcomponent VIIH.


Form 1 (Fig. 45, i)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group possess straight edges and bases whose comers are square. The cross section is lenticular. Both are fragmentary, measuring *3.5 x 3.2 x 0.55 cm., and *2.6 x 3.4 x 0.9 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are probably the products of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [158/159]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 2 (Fig. 45, j-k)

   Number of Specimens. 3

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. Measurements and description. These specimens possess convex edges and straight bases whose corners are square. The cross section is shallow and lenticular. These specimens measure 3.0 x 1.7 x 0.3 cm., 3.95 x 1.8 x 1.0 cm., and 5.0 x 2.5 x 0.75 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. The two specimens from Subcomponent VII-I may be either pressure or percussion flaking. The other is percussion flaked.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 2; L, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Lanceolate projectile points

   Lanceolate projectile points (Figs, 11, i-j; 45, l, o). Only six points which might be termed lanceolate were recovered from the site. Of these, only those from Cultural Component III have any real potential significance.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; H, 1; I, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 2
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

   
  

Form 1 (Fig. 11, i-j)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. Measurements and description. These specimens possess slightly convex edges and thick lenticular cross sections. One has a rounded base; the other a square base with rounded corners. Fragmentary, these specimens measure *2.5 x 1.5 x 0.9 cm., and *1.8 x 1.5 x 0.7 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None. [159/160]

 

   Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 2
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 2. (Fig. 45, o)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This specimen possesses slightly convex edges and a straight base with rounded corners. The cross section is shallow and lenticular, and the body of the point is fairly broad. It measures *3.1 x 2.1 x 0.6 can.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen is the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 3. (Fig. 45, l)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This specimen possesses straight edges and an irregular base with rounded comers. The cross section is thick and lenticular. This specimen measures *2.9 x 1.5 x 0.8 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen appears to be the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: H, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [160-161]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 4.

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. Each of these specimens has convex edges expanding outward from a narrow, concave base the comers of which are square. The cross section is lenticular. Both fragmentary, these specimens measure *2.4 x *1.9 x 0.7 cm., and *1.3 x *2.1 x 0.5 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be pressure flaked.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Pentagonal knives and projectile points

   Pentagonal knives and projectile points (Figs. 15, 1; 33, d-e; 46). A total of 31 pentagonal points and knives were recovered from 45KT28. Though most were undoubtedly made and used as knives, it is probable that a few were also used as projectile points.

   The pentagonal shape of many of these specimens has been accentuated by patterns of hafting and resharpening. This is particularly true of Type 1 and Style 1 specimens, in which it often produces slightly irregular outlines.

   The distribution of pentagonals at 45KT28 suggests that as a group they are confined almost entirely to the Cayuse Phase. In this connection it should be noted that the specimen from Cultural Component VI is unlike any of those from Cultural Component VII.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; B, 1; I, 24; L, 1; undesignated, 2
 VI: 1
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

   
  

Type 1. Plateau Pentagonal (Figs, 33, e; 46, e-i)

   Number of Specimens. 9

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight or slightly convex edges and bases. The corners of the base may be square or slightly rounded. The cross section is lenticular. The basic outline is, of course, pentagonal. [161-162]

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
4.0-5.9
none
Width
2.5-3.7
2.5-2.7
Thickness
0.5-0.8
0.6-0.8
 

   Technique of manufacture. 0.6-0.8

   Comments. The type designation Plateau Pentagonal has been adapted from Caldwell's (1956) Type 14. Caldwell's use of this designation encompasses both specimens of the characteristics of those in this group and other similar specimens with slightly concave bases. I have included all specimens possessing concave bases in Type 2, the Columbia Mule Ear Knife, a type in which Caldwell includes only those specimens with extremely concave bases.

   Along the Columbia River, Plateau Pentagonals are distributed, minimally, from the Canadian bonier to The Dalles. They are also common along the Lower Snake River. Along the Upper Columbia they are most common in Cayuse III times, but may also have occurred in much smaller quantities in the Cayuse I and II subphases. Of the nine specimens from 45KT28, seven are late Cayuse III, one is Cayuse I, and one cannot be accurately assigned a subphase designation. On the Middle Columbia, we have little to judge the antiquity of these specimens aside from Wakemap Mound (Caldwell 1956). Here they occurred from about 900 A.D. down to historic times.

   This information, although meager, still suggests that the Plateau Pentagonal was introduced as a common element along the Upper Columbia during the Cayuse III period. Like many of the other types introduced at this f time, its origin was probably The Dalles locale.

 

   Distribution.
VII: B, 1; I, 6; L, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: Plate VIII, f-g, j-l
   Collier et al.. 1942: Plate II, u
   Daugherty 1952: Fig. 114f, 7
   Lelander 1958: Fig. 5, 327
   Osbome 1957: Plate 22, 13-14
   Osborne, Crabtree, and Bryan 1952: Fig. 110, w

   The undesignated specimen antedates Subcomponent VIIJ by an undetermined amount.


Type 2. Columbia Mule Ear Knife (Figs. 33, d; 46, a-d)

   Number of Specimens. 13

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight or slightly convex edges and concave bases. In cases of extreme basal concavity, the basic pentagonal outline gives the comers of the base an ear-like appearance. The cross section is thick and lenticular. [162-163]

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
3.5-5.8
none
Width
2.1-4.0
none
Thickness
0.45-1.0
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens were roughed out with percussion and finished by means of pressure or percussion flaking. One specimen was found still in the roughed-out state.

   Comments. This type has the same distribution as the Plateau Pentagonal, that is, along the Columbia River from The Dalles to the Canadian border and also along the Lower Snake. Along the Upper Columbia the knives are very late prehistoric and historic (Collier et al., 1942: site 46; Crabtree 1957: Pot Holes). On the Middle Columbia they are late prehistoric, occurring at least as early as 1200 A.D, at Wakemap Mound. This suggests that the Columbia Mule Ear Knife was introduced to the Upper Columbia from The Dalles area in late Cayuse III times.

 

   Distribution.
VII: 1, 13
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Caldwell 1956: Plate VIII, h-i, m
   Collier et al., 1942: Plate II, t
   Lelander l958: Fig.5, 47
   Osborne l957: Plate 22, 9
   Osborne, Bryan and Crabtree 1961: Plate 52, 6, 32; Plate 56, bottom row

Style 1 (Fig. 46, j-l)

   Number of Specimens. 5

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess relatively evenly rounded bases. The cross section is lenticular. Only two of the specimens are complete, measuring 5.0 x 2.9 x 0.8 cm., and 4.0 x 2.3 x 0.6 cm. All of the other specimens would have been larger, the largest being about 11 to 12 cm. in length, 2.5 cm. in width, and 0.9 cm. in thickness.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens were evidently roughed out with percussion and finished by means of pressure flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; I, 2; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [163/164]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 1. (Fig. 46, n)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens are quite small, having short, square bases, straight edges, and lenticular cross sections. They measure 2.9 x 1.6 x 0.4 cm., and 2.1 x 1.4 x 0.5 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be products of pressure flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 2. (Fig. 46, m)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This specimen has a square base with a contracting "stem." The edges are straight, and the cross section is shallow and hexagonal. This specimen measures 5.3 x 2.4 x 0.5 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen is the product of pressure flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Osborne 1957: Plate 17, 25

Form 3.(Fig. 15, 1)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This is a long, narrow triangular point the corners of whose base have been trimmed away diagonally. It measures 7.25 x 2.4 x 0.8 cm. The cross section is lenticular. [164/165]

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen appears to have been roughed out by means of percussion and finished with pressure flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 1
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

   This specimen was recovered from a very late Quilomene Bar Phase subcomponent.



Point or knife fragments

   Point or knife fragments. There are a total of 375 specimens from the site which may be described as projectile-point fragments or finely made knife fragments. Consisting of tips and body sections, most of these specimens are undoubtedly projectile-point fragments. Further identification is, of course, impossible.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 69; B, 12; C, 11; D, 12; E, 1; F, 7; G, 7; H, 36; I, 93; L, 12; undesignated, 65
 VI: 9
  V: 15
 IV or V: 4
 IV: 2
 III: 11
  II: 0
   I: 2
 und.: 4 (resting on I)  und.: 1

   
  


Knives

   Knives. A knife is defined as any chipped stone artifact with one or more regular, bifacially flaked edges which potentially may have formed a cutting implement. The category thus excludes projectile points on the basis of inferred function, core tools on the basis of irregular edges, thick and irregular cross section, and inferred function, and cobble implements because most are unifacially flaked and because, as a group, they do not belong to the chipped-stone category. Groups whose members may have been used as both points and knives have also been treated separately. Such groups include semi-triangulars, pentagonals, and triangulars.

   Although this definition is very broad, all but four of the 661 specimens categorized as knives in this report are patterned after the triangular and leaf-shaped outlines of projectile points. Many probably represent rudimentary stages in the manufacture of leaf-shaped, triangular, and semi-triangular points.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 187; B, 32; C, 12; D, 31; E, 10; F, 9; G, 17; H, 43; 1, 44; L, 19; undesignated, 145
 VI: 30
  V: 12
 IV or V: 6
 IV: 6
 III: 40
  II: 2
   I: 12
 und.: 1 (resting on I)
 und.: 2 [165/166]

   
  

Type 1 (Figs. 7, g-h; 11, d; 15, k; 47, a-m)

   Number of Specimens. 159

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this type possess irregular convex edges and convex bases which may be evenly rounded or possess square or rounded corners. The tips are blunt, and Hie cross section varies from lenticular to plano-convex. In general they are crude and bulky.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.2-8.7
3.1-5.3
Width
1.5-5.8
1.9-3.6
Thickness
0.3-1.8
0.6-1.0
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens were percussion flaked.

   Comments. Unfortunately, the kind of artifact represented by this type is not often illustrated in archaeological reports, or is included in groups of similar specimens of which only the more finely worked are illustrated. Thus, though the temporal depth and continuity of this type at 45KT28 are indicative of a widespread distribution, it is difficult to pin down reported occurrences. Such reports have come from the East Kootenai Region of Canada (Borden 1956), from the Upper Columbia (Collier et at, 1942; Swanson 1962b), and possibly from Wakemap Mound (Caldwell 1956). While this comparative sample is limited, it embraces specimens from widely separated sites and deposits of substantially different ages. Therefore, the designation of "type" is in order.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 65; B, 4; C, 5; D, 9; E, 3; F, 4; G, 3; H, 7; I, 16; L, 3; undesignated, 310
 VI: 4
  V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 2
  II: 0
   I: 2
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Borden 1956: Plate IV, 6-7
   Collier et al., 1942: Plate I, e
   Massey and Nelson 1958: 49, 280b
   Swanson 1962b: Fig. 4, n

Type 2 (Figs. 7, e-f; 12, i-j; 13, e; 15, j; 48)

   Number of Specimens. 10

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this type are basically leaf-shaped in outline, with a rounded base, convex edges, and blunt tips. Some of the specimens from Cultural Component III have one nearly straight edge and one noticeably convex edge (Fig. 12, i-j). All are crudely made, having thick lenticular or plano-convex cross section. Only one is complete, measuring 6.1 x 3.2 x 1.1 cm. Others may have attained a length of as much as 8.0 or 9.0 cm. and a width of 4.5 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. The specimens in this type are the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. Unfortunately, this type must rest almost entirely upon its distribution within the deposits at 45KT28, where it is a characteristic artifact in all the phases but the very latest. Comparative specimens are restricted to Olcott type materials found along the Puget Sound littoral (Butler 1961; Thompson 1961).

 

   Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 2
  V: 0
 IV: 1
 III: 5
  II: 0
   I: 2
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 1 (Fig. 49, a-d)

   Number of Specimens. 28

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight or convex edges and a straight base with square or slightly rounded corners. The cross section may be lenticular or plano-convex. The most striking feature is the base, which in most cases is merely the remnant of the striking platform of the Hake from which the knife was manufactured. The platform remnant is altered by only a few flakes thrown from it into the central portion of the knife's body adjoining the base. This basal thinning may have been done to accommodate hafting. Some of the specimens possess no platform remnants, but appear to be reworked knife tips.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.5-7.8
3.1-5.3
Width
1.5-5.8
1.9-3.6
Thickness
0.3-1.8
0.6-1.0
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the product of percussion flaking. Some were made from large flakes whose striking platforms were utilized as bases. Others were reworked from knife tips.

   Comments. Though unreported in literature about the Plateau, this class of artifacts possesses a temporal distribution at 45KT28 large enough to be termed a style.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 9; C, 1; D, 3; E, 3; F, 1; G, 1; H, 1; I, 1; undesignated, 7
 VI: 0
  V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 2 (Fig. 49, e-h)

   Number of Specimens. 11

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight, square-cornered bases which have been minimally thinned, convex edges, and a convex cutting or adzing bit. In some cases the base is formed by a striking platform but sometimes a broken knife is merely reworked. Four of the specimens look very much like side blades, being broader than they are long. These measure 2.2 x 4.8 x 0.8 cm., 1.9 x 3.5 x 0.9 cm., 2.4 x 3.3 x 0.9 cm., and 2.55 x 4.2 x 0.9 cm. The others are square or, in some cases, somewhat longer than they are wide. The measurements of these are summarized below.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.9-3.6
none
Width
1.9-3.4
none
Thickness
0.3-1.1
0.5-0.7
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens were percussion flaked from thick flakes, core remnants, and knife fragments.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 6; G, 1; H, 3; I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 3 (Fig.49, i-j)

   Number of Specimens. 6

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica. [167/168]

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this style appear to be reworked knife fragments. Evidently the first stage of manufacture was to break off the end of the knife, leaving a piece much the same shape as specimens in Style 2. Then the specimen was broken a second time from the edge, near the original knife base, to about the center of the first break. The broken edges then were slightly thinned, It is not clear whether bifacially flaked knife edges were the desired product or whether the burin-like bit formed at the intersection of the two breaks was to be used as a graving tool.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
3.2-5.7
none
Width
2.05-3.6
none
Thickness
0.8-1.2
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. See above, measurements and description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; B, 1; H, 1; L, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

   The undesignated specimen is disputed between Subcomponents VIIB and VIIF.


Style 4 (Fig.49, k-l)

   Number of Specimens. 4

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. Specimens In this group resemble wedges of pie. The base of the wedge or triangle is convex and has been flaked bifacially to form a cutting edge. The edges of these wedges were not sharpened, but merely thinned, perhaps for convenience in hafting or holding as a result, the cross section is rectangular. The straight edges of the wedge meet to form a sharp, burin-like bit, and on one specimen this bit shows signs of having been utilized.

   The specimens in this group measure 4.8 x 2.95 x 0.7 cm., 4.5 x 3.1 x 0.8 cm., 4.1 x 2.0 x 0.95 cm., and 4.35 x 3.4 x 1.3 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the product of percussion flaking. It is possible that they represent a stage in the manufacture of triangular points or knives.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; B, 1; D, 1; G, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [168/169]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 5 (Fig. 50, a-b)

   Number of Specimens. 5

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens are thin, flat, rectangular slabs of petrified wood which have been trimmed along three edges and bifacially sharpened along the fourth. Only one is complete, measuring 6.8 x 3.5 x 0.8 cm. The largest fragmentary specimen measures *8.15 x 4.8 x 0.2 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. Two specimens, one undesignated and one from VIIA, appear to be pressure flaked. The others are percussion flaked.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; B, 1; I, 2; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 6 (Fig. 50, c-d)

   Number of Specimens. 3

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens resemble high, regular trapazoids in outline. They are bifacially flaked all the way round; the cross section is lenticular. These specimens measure 4.4 x 3.7 x 1.0 cm., 4.0 x 2.7 x 0.8 cm., and 3.0 x 2.7 x 0.8 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be percussion flaked.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; B, 1; I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 7 (Figs. 12, e; 50, e-f)

   Number of Specimens. 4

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica. [169-170]

   Measurements and description. These specimens are based on triangular flakes, the two longest edges of which have been bifacially flaked into cutting edges; the bases are totally unworked. Cross section is lenticular or plano-convex. The bulb of percussion of the smallest specimen is at the knife's tip (Fig. 50, f). This specimen measures 3.7 x 2.7 x 0.45 cm. On the larger specimens the bulb of percussion appears somewhere along the base. These specimens measure 4.8 x 3.2 x 1.0 cm., 7.0 x 3.65 x 1.4 cm., and 4.3 x 3.0 x 0.7 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are probably the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: D, 1; undesignated, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 1
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 8 (Figs. 13, i; 50, g-h)

   Number of Specimens. 5

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group are leaf-shaped knives with convex edges and slightly rounded bases. The cross section is thick and lenticular. All are incomplete. It is likely that they would have averaged 7.0 to 7.5 cm. in length, 3.0 to 3.5 cm. in width, and 0.8 to 1.1 cm. in thickness.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the products of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; B, 1; I, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV or V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 9 (Figs. 13, d; 50, i-j)

   Number of Specimens. 4

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess parallel edges and convex bases. The cross section is that of a parallelogram. All of the specimens are fragmentary; complete they would have ranged from about 3.5 to 4.5 cm. in length, from 2.1 to 2.6 cm. in width, and from 0.7 to 1.0 cm. in thickness.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the products of percussion flaking. [170/171]

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: D, 1; undesignated, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 1
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 10 (Figs. 7, i; 51, a-b)

   Number of Specimens. 6

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This style is characterized by straight edges and a straight base whose corners are square. The edges are nearly parallel to one another. The cross section is lenticular in four instances and that of a parallelogram in the remaining two specimens. All of the specimens in this style are fragmentary. They would probably have ranged from 3.5 to 5.0 cm. in length, from 2.4 to 3.3 cm. in width, and from 0.8 to 1.2 cm. in thickness.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be percussion flaked.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; B, 1; H, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 1
  II: 0
   I: 1
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 11 (Fig. 51, c-e)

   Number of Specimens. 4

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens are peripherally flaked, triangular chips with slightly convex edges and straight bases whose corners may be round or square. The original flake surfaces are visible over much of the area of the specimen. The cross section is thin and lenticular. Three are complete, measuring 3.8 x 1.7 x 0.4 cm., 3.2 x 1.7 x 0.25 cm., and 2.9 x 1.6 x 0.25 cm. The incomplete specimen is 4.0 cm. long and would have been about 2.1 cm. in width.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None. [171/172]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; H, 1; I, 1; L, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 1 (Fig. 51, f-g)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens are the basal fragments of large, lanceolate knives with slightly convex edges and slightly indented bases. The cross section is thick and lenticular. In their fragmentary state, these specimens measure *4.7 x *2.8 x 0.9 cm., *3.4 x *3.45 x 0.9 cm., and *3.3 x *3.1 x 0.7 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 3
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 1
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 2 (Fig. 51, h)

   Number of Specimens. 3

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess slightly convex edges and are nearly rectangular in outline. The long edges are bifacially flaked, and die base and tip are slightly thinned, but not sharpened. These specimens measure 4.4 x 3.0 x 0.9 cm., 4.2 x 2.4 x 0.6 cm., and 4.3 x 3.7 x 0.8 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII:
 VI: A, 3
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [172/173]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 3 (Fig. 51, i)

   Number of Specimens. 3

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens possess straight to convex edges which are parallel, round bases, and lenticular cross sections. All are fragmentary, measuring *5.0 x 2.5 x 0.6 cm., *4.2 x 2.6 x 05 cm., and *3.6 x 2.4 x 0.6 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; F, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 4 (Figs. 14, 1; 51, j)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens were percussion flaked.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 5 (Fig. 51, k)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. Small, peripherally flaked chips, these specimens have convex edges and concave bases with well-defined corners. The cross section of one specimen is plano-convex, that of the other lenticular. These specimens measure 1.9 x 1.7 x 04 cm., and 2.0 x 1.1 x 0.3 cm. [173/174]

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be the products of pressure flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 6 (Fig. 52, j)

   Number of Specimens. 3

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These are peripherally flaked, triangular specimens with straight, though somewhat irregular edges, and convex bases. The original flake surfaces appear on each side or the specimen. The cross section may be lenticular or plano-convex. These specimens measure 3.2 x 2.2 x 0.7 cm., 3.0 x 2.2 x 0.4 cm., and 2.2 x 1.7 x 0.4 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be the products of pressure flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 7 (Fig, 52, i)

   Number of Specimens. 4

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. Each of the specimens in the group is simply a flake, one edge of which has been bifacially sharpened for cutting. The cutting edge is convex, the cross section triangular. Three of the specimens are complete, measuring 3.8 x 2.25 x 0.3 cm., 4.7 x 1.5 x 0.7 cm., and 4.7 x 4.0 x 12 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens appear to be the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None. [174/175]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; B, 1; undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

   The undesignated specimen is VIIG or later.


Miscellaneous knives (Figs. 7, j; 14, k; 51, l-n; 52, a-h)

   Number of Specimens. 13

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This group contains miscellaneous specimens, all of which are illustrated with the important data accompanying each illustration.

   Technique of manufacture. See illustration notes.

   Comments. None

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 3; D, 1, H, 1, I, 1; undesignated, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 1
  II: 1
   I: 1
 und.: 1

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Knife Fragments

   Number of Specimens. 378

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group are fragments of knives and cannot be assigned to specific typological classes.

   Technique of manufacture. Highly variable, technique relies mostly upon percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 85; B, 21; C, 6; D, 15; E, 4; F, 3; G, 11; H, 28; I, 16; L, 14; undesignated, 95
 VI: 24
  V: 8
 IV or V: 5
 IV: 4
 III: 30
  II: 1 [175/176]
   I: 6
 und.: 1 (resting on I)
 und.: 1

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Core tools

   Core tools. Core tools embrace all those implements manufactured from large chunks of cryptocrystalline silica by means of the removal of flakes, rather than by means of flake modification or utilization characteristic of all other chipped stone artifacts. Some, and particularly those in Style 1, probably never were utilized as tools. Others, and especially those in Type 2. represent cores or core remnants which were only slightly modified for use. Those in Type 1 and Form 1 evidently were prepared as tools and may not have functioned as cores in providing flakes specifically for utilization.

   Of the 96 specimens recovered, 76 may be described as biface cores and 19 as uniface cores. The unifacially flaked specimens are all in Type III and are common in both early and late deposits at the site.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 26; B, 2; C, 2; D, 1; G, 2; H, 4; I, 3; L, 3; undesignated, 16
 VI: 9
  V: 3
 IV or V: 2
 IV: 1
 III: 16
  II: 0
   I: 6
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type 1. Elongate Core Tools (Figs. 7, k-l; 12, f-g; 13, g, k; 17, a-b; 53, a-d)

   Number of Specimens. 17

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this type are bifacially flaked, elongate core tools whose cross section tends to be diamond shaped. They are long in comparison with their width and the width-length ratios of other core tools from the site. Occasionally there are use flakes or retouching along one of the edges.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
4.4-7.5
none
Width
2.5-4.5
3.0-4.0
Thickness
1.3-2.85
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. This type is abundant during the earlier phases at the site, but rare during the Cayuse Phase. Unfortunately, it is this distribution on which the designation of type must rest as there seems to be no reported occurrences from the Plateau. However, lack of such comparative data may well be due to traditional ways of reporting artifact and detrital assemblages.

 

   Distribution.
VII: undesignated, 1
 VI: 2
  V: 3
 IV or V: 1
 IV: 1
 III: 6
  II: 0
   I: 3
 und.: 0 [176/177]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type 2 (Figs. 17, c-d; 53, e-h)

   Number of Specimens. 70

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. For the most part specimens in this type tend to be small, being round or oval in outline and either bifacially or unifacially flaked. The cross section, always thick, is lenticular or hexagonal in the bifacially flaked specimens and plano-convex or triangular in the unifacially flaked specimens. Both types are distributed throughout the deposits at the site.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.7-6.2
2.6-5.2
Width
1.5-5.1
2.1-4.2
Thickness
0.6-2.4
0.9-1.6
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. Though the specimens in this type are common in all the deposits at the site, use of the "type" designation suffers from the same weakness it does in the case of Type 1. There is no clearly reported comparative data, a situation probably due to the way site materials have been traditionally treated in the past.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 25; B, 2; C, 2; D, 1; G, 2; H, 4; I, 3; L, 3; undesignated, 14
 VI: 7
  V: 0
 IV or V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 4
  II: 0
   I: 2
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 1 (Fig. 53, i-j)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These bifacially flaked specimens have oval outlines and thick lenticular cross sections. They are very well made for core tools, measuring 6.3 x 3.9 x 2.0 cm., and 4.7 x 3.9 x 1.35 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are percussion flaked.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 1
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0 [177-178]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Form 2 (Fig. 53, k-l)

   Number of Specimens. 7

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. . The specimens in this group are of irregular size, shape and cross section. They are multifacially flaked and tend to be quite large.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
5.05-8.1
none
Width
3.0-4.3
none
Thickness
2.2-4.0
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are percussion flaked.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 5
  II: 0
   I: 1
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Scrapers

Scrapers. A scraper is defined as any unifacially flaked, chipped stone artifact whose inferred function was that of scraping. The category of scraper thus excludes gravers, microblades, and utilized flakes on the basis of function or technique of manufacture. It includes such tools as spoke shaves, end scrapers, and side scrapers. A total of 727 scrapers were recovered.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 148; B, 42; C, 21; D, 30; E, 3; F, 11; G, 19; H, 32; I, 56; L, 15; undesignated, 182
 VI: 50
  V: 30
 IV or V: 7
 IV: 5
 III: 56
  II: 1
   I: 14
 und.: 5 (resting on I)

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type 1. End Scrapers (Figs. 8, b; 12, h; 16, f-j, 54, a-n)

   Number of Specimens. 173

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This diverse group is characterized by specimens with steeply keeled, unifacially flaked, convex scraping edges. At times such an edge takes advantage of the natural contours of a flake (16, f-j, Fig. 54, i-k, m). Much more frequently, however, end scrapers are formed in the outline of a triangle or a rectangle. One of the rectangular specimens deriving from VII-I possesses a stemmed base which suggests that it was probably hafted (16, f-j, Fig. 54, h). Many of the specimens are polished along the scraping edge, possibly from long use as fleshers. [178/179]

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.5-7.1
1.9-4.5
Width
1.4-5.3
1.4-4.0
Thickness
0.3-1.6
0.5-0.9
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are percussion flaked.

   Comments. The end scraper is a common trait throughout the Plateau and is probably present in every period of its prehistory.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 36; B, 7; C, 6; D, 13; E, 2; F, 2; G, 3; H, 8; I, 36; L, 1; undesignated, 30
 VI: 14
  V: 0
 IV or V: 3
 IV: 0
 III: 9
  II: 1
   I: 2
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Borden 1956: Plate VI, 30-35
   Caldwell 1956: Plate X, g-h
   Collier et al., 1942: Plate IV, l-q
   Cressman 1960: Fig. 45, h-n

Type 2. Side Scrapers (Figs. 55 and 56)

   Number of Specimens. 166

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens vary a great deal in size, shape, and proportion. Each possesses one or more unifacially flaked scraping edges, and the majority are based on purposefully struck flakes. For more detailed description, consult the various type variants.

   Technique of manufacture. The specimens in this type may be the products of either pressure or percussion flaking.

   Comments. Like end scrapers, side scrapers are a universal form in the Plateau.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 40; B, 7; C, 6; D, 7; F, 2; G, 5; H, 11; I, 9; L, 5; undesignated, 32
 VI: 15
  V: 6
 IV: 1
 III: 16
  II: 0
   I: 4
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   See various type variants

Type Variant 2A. (Fig. 55, a-b)

   Number of Specimens. 3 [179/180]

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens are characterized by long concave scraping edges. The rest of the flake is little modified, some trimming being evident. Two of these specimens are complete, measuring 6.2 x 2.9 x 0.6 cm., and 6.05 x 3.8 x 0.9 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type Variant 2B. (Figs. 12, k; 55, c-d)

   Number of Specimens. 3

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. Each of these specimens possesses one convex scraping edge which intersects a straight scraping edge at an angle of ninety degrees or less. The base of the scraper is unmodified. These specimens measure 4.5 x 3.5 x 1.0 cm.. 5.7 x 3.3 x 0.4 cm., and 5.05 x 3.4 x 0.6 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: I, 2
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 1
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type Variant 2C. (Figs. 8, a; 16, k-n; 55, e-o)

   Number of Specimens. 39

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group vary a good deal in size, but all tend to be long and narrow with parallel-sided scraping edges. The cross section is usually shallow, and may vary from triangular to trapezoidal.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.5-7.0
2.5-5.4
Width
1.0-3.4
none
Thickness
0.25-1.2
0.25-1.2 [180/181]
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 8; B, 3; C, 1; D, 2; G. 2; H. 2; I, 4; L, 3; undesignated, 4
 VI: 9
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 1
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Borden 1956: Plate VI, 21-29
   Caldwell 1956: Plate IX, g-p
   Collier et al., 1942; Plate IV, t-w
   Cressman 1960: Fig. 29, a-d

Type Variant 2D. (Fig. 56, a-d)

   Number of Specimens. 121

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These rather crude specimens have been manufactured from both flakes and splinters alike. Each possesses a single worked edge which is either straight or slightly convex. The cross section varies from plano-convex, to triangular, to trapezoidal.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.2-9.0
2.6-5.0
Width
1.1-5.2
2.0-3.3
Thickness
0.4-2.1
0.8-1.3
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 30; B, 4; C, 5; D, 5; F, 2; G, 3; H, 9; I, 2; L, 2; undesignated, 28
 VI: 6
  V: 6
 IV: 1
 III: 14
  II: 0
   I: 4
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Type 3. Spoke Shaves (Figs. 8, c, k; 12, c-d; 14, n; 56, e-g; 57)

   Number of Specimens. 25

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica. [181/182]

   Measurements and description. Each of the specimens in this type has been flaked and utilized so as to produce an even, concave scraping edge. All are made from purposefully struck flakes, save some of those in Type Variant 3B. For more detailed descriptions consult the type variants.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are worked through utilization and pressure flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; B, 2; D, 2; G, 2; H, 2; I, 1; L, 1; undesignated, 4
 VI: 1
  V: 2
 IV: 1
 III: 4
  II: 0
   I:1
 und.: 1 (resting on I)

  Comparable specimens.
   See various type variants.


Type Variant 3A (Figs. 8, c, k; 12, c; 14, n; 56, e-g)

   Number of Specimens. 19

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. Each of these specimens, which are irregular in outline, possesses a small concave scraping surface. The flakes themselves are thin and purposefully struck, varying in cross section from triangular to trapezoidal.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.1-5.95
3.0-3.8
Width
1.55-3.9
2.0-3.0
Thickness
0.4-1.4
0.4-0.7
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; D, 2; G, 1; H, 1; I, 1 L, 1; undesignated, 3
 VI: 1
  V: 2
 IV: 1
 III: 3
  II: 0
   I: 1
 und.: 1 (resting on I) [182/183]

  Comparable specimens.
   Gunkel, 1961: 178, Flake Draw-knives
   Strong et al., 1930: Plate 16, k-l


Type Variant 3B (Figs. 12, d; 57)

   Number of Specimens. 6

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens were manufactured from hefty flakes and core remnants. The actual scraping edge is formed by a negative bulb of percussion which was removed from a striking platform of a core or from a thick flake.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
3.0-5.0
3.0-3.7
Width
2.0-3.0
none
Thickness
0.75-2.0
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. See major type description.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: B, 2, G, 1; H, 1, undesignated, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 1
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 1 (resting on I)

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Style 1 (Fig. 58, a-e)  see [Note 6]

   Number of Specimens. 95

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens are described far better by the drawings in Figure 58 than they might be by words. Basically, each involves the flaking of the particular kind of edge shown in the cross sections in Figure 58. The worked edge itself may have been used like that of a large gouge, or it may represent some stage in the manufacture of other kinds of artifacts.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.4-10.3
2.4-5.9
Width
1.1-7.7
2.0-5.9
Thickness
0.5-2.2
0.7-1.2
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the product of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 23; B, 7; C, 4; D, 3; F, 1; G, 2; H, 3; I, 3; undesignated, 33
 VI: 2
  V: 6
 IV: 1
 III: 5
  II: 0
   I: 1
 und.: 1 (resting on I) [183/184]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 2 (Fig. 58, f-g)  see [Note 6]

   Number of Specimens. 16

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. These specimens, similar in technique of workmanship to those of Style 1, possess convex scraping edges. They are made from large splinters of material, and are flaked in the manner shown in Figure 58. Only four are complete; they measure 4.6 x 3.5 x 2.8 cm., 4.95 x 3.85 x 2.5 cm., 4.7 x 2.4 x 1.4 cm., and 3.7 x 2.5 x 1.7 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the products of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; F, 2; G, 1; L, 2; undesignated, 6
 VI: 1
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 2 (resting on I)

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 3 (Fig. 56, j)

   Number of Specimens. 34

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group are manufactured from large flakes of irregular outline and cross section. They are roughly shaped with a few large percussion flakes and then utilized. Retouching is rare.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.8-5.9
3.1-5.3
Width
1.5-4.0
2.5-3.4
Thickness
0.6-2.4
0.8-1.3
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the products of percussion flaking and utilization.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 10; B, 2; D, 2; F, 1; G, 1; H, 1; undesignated, 9
 VI: 2
  V: 2
 IV: 0
 III: 3
  II: 0
   I: 1
 und.: 0 [184/185]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Style 4 (Fig. 56, k-l)

   Number of Specimens. 15

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens to this group are large and thick, with convex or straight scraping edges and irregular outlines. The cross sections are also variable, tending to gravitate about triangular and plano-convex. Only one appears to be complete, measuring 7.3 x 5.6 x 3.8 cm. Most of the others would have exceeded this size, though it cannot be determined by exactly how much. Two or three may have been slightly smaller.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the products of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; undesignated, 3
 VI: 2
  V: 1
 IV: 0
 III: 5
  II: 0
   I: 3
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

   The undesignated specimens, respectively, postdate Subcomponents VIIE and antedate Subcomponent VIIL, postdate Subcomponent VIIF and antedate Subcomponent VIIL, and antedate Subcomponent VIIF.


Form 1 (Fig. 8, l)

   Number of Specimens. 1

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. This specimen is a large, almost square artifact with two parallel scraping edges formed first by percussion flaking and then retouched with utilization. The cross section is plano-convex. This specimen measures 5.1 x 5.9 x 1.6 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. This specimen is the products of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: 0
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 1 (resting on I) [185/186]

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Fragments of Well Made End and Side Scrapers

   Number of Specimens. 83

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this group are small fragments of scrapers which would fall into Type 1 and Type Variants 2A, 2B, and 2C. Unfortunately, more specific identification is not possible.

   Technique of manufacture. The specimens in this group are the product of pressure flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 18; B, 7; C, 2; D, 1; F, 2; G, 2; H, 5; I, 3; L, 2; undesignated, 27
 VI: 6
  V: 2
 IV or V: 2
 IV: 0
 III: 4
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Scraper Fragments

   Number of Specimens. 119

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The fragments subsumed under this heading may have derived from Type Variant 2D and Styles 1 through 3. More specific identification is not possible.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are probably all the products of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 17; B, 10; C, 3; D, 2; E, 1; F, 1; G, 3; H, 2; I, 4; L, 4; undesignated, 38
 VI: 7
  V: 11
 IV or V: 2
 IV: 2
 III: 10
  II: 0
   I: 2
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Gravers

Gravers. A graver is defined as any unifacially flaked, pointed implement of chipped stone whose inferred function is incising or grooving. A total of 46 gravers were recovered. [186/187]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 7; B, 4; C, 1; D, 4; E, 1; F, 1; G, 1; H, 3; I, 5; L, 1; undesignated, 7
 VI: 5
  V: 2
 IV or V: 1
 IV: 1
 III: 2
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

Type 1 (Figs. 16, d-e; 59, a-e)

   Number of Specimens. 31

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this type possess deliberately shaped bodies from which project curved, beak-like points designed for engraving. They are well made, the basic outline gravitating around triangular and rectangular. The cross section of the body may be triangular, plano-convex, or trapezoidal; the cross section of the graving point is triangular.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.2-8.3
2.8-4.3
Width
1.5-3.25
none
Thickness
0.4-1.3
0.5-0.7
 

   Technique of manufacture. The specimens in this group appear to be the products of pressure flaking.

   Comments. Gravers of this type are found throughout the Plateau at a comparatively recent time level. Because they are a specialized tool, gravers also are rare and therefore difficult to locate in earlier assemblages where data are restricted. Although apparently common throughout Medithermal times, their existence in earlier periods remains to be demonstrated.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 5; B, 1; C, 1; D, 2; E, 1; F, 1; H, 3; I, 2; L, 1; undesignated, 7
 VI: 4
  V: 2
 IV: 0
 III: 1
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Borden 1956: Plate VI, 12
   Caldwell 1956: Plate X, m-s
   Collier, et al., 1942: Plate IV, e-k
   Daugherty 1952: Fig. 114, 2
   Nelson 1962b; Fig. 8, a

Style 1 (Figs. 12, b; 13. f, j; 17, f; 59, f-h)

   Number of Specimens. 13

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica. [187/188]

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this style are large and crude, being minimally shaped and possessing blunt graving points. The secondary flaking in the area of the graving point is evidently a product of utilization. The cross sections and outlines are irregular.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.4-6.8
none
Width
1.0-3.5
2.1-3.0
Thickness
0.5-2.1
none
 

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the products of percussion flaking and utilization.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; B, 3; D, 1; G, 1; I, 2
 VI: 1
  V: 0
 IV or V:1
 IV: 1
 III: 1
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Cressman 1960: Fig. 46, e-f

Form 1 (Fig. 59, i-j)

   Number of Specimens. 2

   Material. Cryptocrystalline silica.

   Measurements and description. The specimens in this form are thin, flat flake gravers which have been carefully shaped through pressure flaking. Each has been modified at the base for hafting, one being comer removed and the other possessing two shallow basal notches. The cross sections of these specimens are thin and triangular. These gravers measure 3.2 x 1.45 x 0.3 cm., and 3.1 x 1.5 x 0.3 cm.

   Technique of manufacture. These specimens are the products of percussion flaking.

   Comments. None.

 

   Distribution.
VII: D, 1; I, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Drills and Awls

Drills and Awls (Figs. 8, j; 15, i; 59, k-r). The title of this category owes more to strong tradition than to ethnographic or functional data, for though the term "drill" is commonly applied to all of the forms illustrated in Figure 59, it is likely that only a fraction actually were used to drill holes. Ethnographically, hafted stone drills are reported for the Lower Chinook, the Sanpoil, Lower Carrier and Kutenai. They were used occasionally among the Thompson, but may have been absent among the Klikitat, Kalispel. and Lillooet (Ray 1942:146). It is thus probable that the stone drill was nearly universally used in the Plateau during the historic period. True to ethnographic [188/189] description, many specimens termed drills by archaeologists are suitable for hafting, but like their companion specimens, they rarely if ever show any signs of utilization. When used to drill soft steatite or wood of any thickness these so-called drills flake away rapidly. Many of the most finely made have long slender shanks which break under minimum pressure. Such specimens would be suitable for drilling only the softest of materials. There is thus some question as to the usefulness of chipped stone drills.

   Drills also may have had other uses. The Wishram (Spier and Sapir 1930:188) and the Coeur d'Alene (Telt 1930:43) are said to have used stone awls in the manufacture of basketry. Others, such as that in Figure 59, m, may have served as projectile points, while specimens such as r in Figure 59 may be nothing more than resharpened points.

   The 35 drills recovered from 45KT28 include both complete specimens and fragments. The range of forms represented may be seen in Figure 59. Of these the most common varieties were the T-drill (k, 1, p, q) and the flake drill (n, o), both of which occurred throughout the Cayuse Phase. All earlier specimens are fragmentary, but probably they resembled the one shown in Figure 59, m. The specimen from Cultural Component II, which was a re-worked stemmed point (Type 1), is an exception.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.6-6.55
3.1-4.8
Width
0.8-4.0
1.0-2.2
Thickness
0.2-1.1
none
 

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 5; B, 5; C, 2; D, 3; E, 1; F, 1, I, 10; L, 1; undesignated, 2
 VI: 1
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 3
  II: 1
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Borden 1956: Plate VI. 14-17
   Collier et al., 1942: Plate IV, a-d
   Cressman 1960: Fig. 14d, top row
   Gunkel l961: Fig. 27, e-h
   Malouf 1956: Plate II, level III
   Osborne 1956-57: Photo A, 8
   Osborne 1959: Plate III, g


Chisel

Chisel. This specimen is a narrow rectangle of petrified wood, one end of which has been bifacially flaked into a cutting edge. It measure 7.2 x 2.5 x 0.9 cm., and derives from Cultural Component VII.



Bifacially Flaked Hand Tool

Bifacially Flaked Hand Tool (Fig. 60). This specimen, which was bifacially flaked from a large spall, is roughly oval in outline. It has been flaked to a sharp edge everywhere except at the base of the striking platform. The cross section is thick and lenticular. This specimen measures 11.5 x 7.9 x 2.6 cm. It was recovered from a cache pit at the base of Stratum 6 beneath House Pit VIIG and is probably contemporary with VIIA.


If this specimen had been found in the Old World, it would have been identified as a biface on a levallois flake from a tortoise core.




Crescent Fragment

Crescent Fragment (?) (Fig. 8, d). This specimen has been tentatively identified as a crescent fragment similar in type to dose recovered at Lind Coulee (Daugherty 1956a). Having a lenticular cross section, this specimen measures *2.2 x *2.1 x 0.7 cm. It derives from Cultural Component I. [189/190]



Blades and Cores

Blades and Cores (Figs. 61 and 62). Questions surrounding the production of true blades are always difficult because there is little agreement among Northwest archaeologists as to the minimal criteria by which the existence of such an industry may be validly established. If one were to make positive and negative bulbs of percussion, blade-like form, with utilization the major criteria, 50 to 75 of the utilized flakes from 45KT28 would be termed true blades. If, however, one adds the existence of cores, it becomes difficult to demonstrate the existence of a true blade industry, the only acceptable report of microblades being that of Osborne (1959) for the Windy Springs site at Sun Lakes.

   Twenty-three possible microblades and three possible cores were recovered from 45KT28. All of the cores and five of the blades, none of which showed signs of utilization, were recovered from Cultural Component III (Figs. 61, a-b; 62). The remaining blades derive from Cultural Components I, VI and VII, being most common from VII. Two of these (Fig. 61, g-h) have been utilized.

   In addition to the two possible microblade cores (Fig. 62), a large core, measuring 12.4 x 10.9 x 7.5 cm., was recovered in a deposit resting on Cultural Component I (Fig. 9). It may have been used in the production of large blade-like flakes.

 
Extremes
Modes
Length
1.5-5.1
none
Width
0.7-2.8
0.7-1.6
Thickness
0.2-0.5
none
 

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 4; B, 1; F, 1; G, 1; H, 2; L, 1; undesignated, 3
 VI: 3
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 5
  II: 0
   I: 2
 und.: 0

   
  


Utilized Flakes

Utilized Flakes (Fig. 63). The 864 utilized flakes from 45KT28 have been divided into two primary groups: those which are deliberately struck flakes displaying bulbs of percussion, and those utilized splinters and chunks which were apparently accidental byproducts of flaking artifacts, core trimming, and the like. In addition there is a third group consisting of fragments of knives which have served as utilized flakes. The distribution of these three groups of utilized flakes may be seen in Table 3, where the first group has been divided into several subgroups on the basis of size. It should be noted that the low percentage of utilized flakes from Subcomponent VII-I is a result of the fact that level bags were not kept during its excavation. Level bags from other subcomponents at the site yielded large numbers of utilized flakes missed in the preliminary field inspection.



Basalt Spall Scrapers

Seventy-seven spall scrapers of basalt, schist and quartzite were recovered. Typically they possess an oval outline, a bifacially flaked periphery, and a very shallow lenticular cross section. Seven have highly polished edges.
 
Extremes
Modes
Length
2.2-17.1
none
Width
2.2-11.0
5.2-8.0
Thickness
0.2-2.5
none
 

  

Of the 17 tribes covered in Ray's culture element distribution study (1942:126), 14 are said to have used implements similar to these for hide stretching during the tanning process. [190/191]

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 2; C, 2; D, 7; E, 3; G, 1; H, 24; I, 8; J, 1; K, 1; L, 3; undesignated, 23
 VI: 1
  V: 0
 IV or V: 1  IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   Borden 1956: Plate VII, 1-3
   Collier et al., 1942: Plate VI
   Gunkel l961: Fig. 28
   Osborne 1956-57: Photo B
   Swanson 1962a: Fig. 30, j

   The two specimens which predate VII do not fall within the modal range of variation of this group, but are somewhat irregular in cross section and outline. The specimens from VIID and VIIH were found in caches on their respective house floors.



Large Edge-Worn fragments of Basalt

The specimens in this category are large angular fragments of basalt, each of which possesses a sharp edge that has been polished through utilization. These specimens measure 23.0 x 14.0 x 8.4 cm., and 17.0 x 10.0 x 7.5 cm.

   The specimens in this category may have had a function similar to that possessed by basalt spall scrapers. That is, they may have been used in the stretching of small hides by pulling the skin back and forth over the edge of the implement rather than moving the implement over the surface of the skin.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 1; F, 1
 VI: 0
  V: 0
 IV: 0
 III: 0
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 0

  Comparable specimens.
   None.


Edge-Ground Basalt Spall

This specimen is similar to edge-ground cobbles in that one of its edges has been ground into a smooth, convex surface or facet. The only edge-ground artifact from the excavations, it measures 9.2 x 6.7 x 1.3 cm. and derives from Cultural Component V.



Cobble Scraping Planes (Fig. 65)

The seven specimens in this category are steeply faced, unifacially flaked cobbles of basalt. The worked edges intersect flat surfaces, making these specimens ideal scraping plains. However, two may have also been used as choppers. [191/192]

   Four of tile specimens derive from Cultural Component III and thus date from the early Frenchman Springs Phase. The other three were found in deposits resting on Cultural Component I and may represent either the late Vantage or early Frenchman Springs Phase.

   These specimens may be related to the early cobble industry which Borden has reported from the early components of DjRi3 as well as to the early cobble forms common along the Snake River.



Miscellaneous Flaked Cobble Tools

Most of the 25 specimens in this category are fragments which are not diagnostic. Others of more Interest are shown in Figure 66, where they are accompanied by pertinent data for each specimen.

 

   Distribution.
VII: A, 4; B, 3; C, 1; D, 1; H, 2; undesignated, 5
 VI: 2
  V: 2
 IV: 0
 III: 4
  II: 0
   I: 0
 und.: 1 (resting on I)

  Comparable specimens.
   None.

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LAST REVISED: 03 NOV 2015